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Flashcards in Basics Deck (23)
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1

Research as ‘organised scepticism’ (Newman 2011)
- systematic

Orderly and methodological

2

Research as ‘organised scepticism’ (Newman 2011)
- Questioning

Challenges assertions & assumptions

3

Research as ‘organised scepticism’ (Newman 2011)
- Empirical

Drama upon data to construct knowledge

4

Research as ‘organised scepticism’ (Newman 2011)
- Objective

concerned with truth and not politics

5

Research as ‘organised scepticism’ (Newman 2011)
- inter-subjective

Grounded in mutual understanding

6

Methods in social research

Methods for producing data in social research are broadly classified as ‘quantitative’ and ‘qualitative’ data

7

Statistical data

Observations and measurements we have collected and classified as numerical data

8

Statistical analysis

Techniques for summarising and finding patterns in numerical data

9

Positivist social research

A version of statistical data which is a consequence of measurable quantities, systems and structures.
Objective measurement using mathematical techniques offers an objective basis for finding patterns and identifying casual relationships

10

Quantification

How much of something is there?

11

Association

Does one thing tend to occur with another thing

12

Prediction

How much of one thing is caused by another

13

Generalisation

Are results valid beyond sample data

14

3 main basic classifications of statistics:
- descriptive statistics

Summarise data by indicting how frequent and how typical or atypical particular qualities are

15

3 main basic classifications of statistics:
- explanatory statistics

Identify patterns in data which might imply causal relations between one factor and another

16

3 main basic classifications of statistics:
- inferential statistics

Indicate how confident we can be in drawing conclusions from sample data about a population

17

Replicability

It is possible to accurately repeat research so to verify it’s results? Confirms objectivity, allows researchers to confirm results if not convinced

18

Reliability

If you repeated the study would you get the same results? Also underpins objectivity as if gives inconsistent results cannot be trusted

19

Measurement validity

Do measures effectively grasp the concepts they are measuring? Different ways to measure one thing, which is best for what we looking for? Is the measurement likely to correspond to the real world?

20

Internal validity

The extent to which you’re able to say that no other variables apart from the independent variable, caused a change in the dependant variable.
Are the conclusions free from other plausible explanations?

21

Dependant variable

Variable being measured through the use of the independent variable (I.e in water experiment this would be lifespan length)

22

Independent variable:

Variable being manipulated (i.e water experiment this would be drinking the glass of water)

23

The independent variable must be the only thing....

Effecting the dependant variable or it is not internally valid