Flashcards in Ageing Deck (25)
The biological process of growing old, with associated changes in physiology and increased susceptibility to disease and increased likelihood of death.
What are the two theories of ageing?
THe damage theory- That the internal and surrounding environmental forces cause damage ( wear and tear).
The programmed ageing theory- That it is a genetically encoded time line of deterioration, in the same way as puberty.
Define life expectancy
Statistical measure of the number of years a person can expect to live.
What lifestyle choices can increase your life expectancy?
Name the 7 challenges faced by society due to an ageing population
Working vs retirement (funds and poverty)
Caring for the elderly and the sandwich generation.
Extended health > lifespan
Access and isolation
The healthcare system is designed for young people
Syndrome which decreases and individuals reserve and resistance to stress eg having multiple morbidity.
What does an ageing population reflect the success of?
Public health policies, education and socioeconomic development.
Describe one way in which the current healthcare system isn@t designed for elderly patients?
There is very little research done on therapies and drugs on elderly people, comorbidities or polypharmacy.
There are little NICE guidelines on pharmacy adherence and depresciption which are often wise options for elderly patients.
What stereotypes are there about elderly patients?
Assumed frailty and dependence.
Assuming the opposite. Bedblockers
Forgetting elderly patients are becoming more diverse as the population does.
Blamed for getting old.
What social care is available in england
Home carers, sheltered housing, care homes (residential and nursing) and personal budgets.
What are the geriatric giants?
Falls, immobility, delirium, incontinence, iatrogenic problems, fluctuating disability and weight loss.
In general how can presentation in the elderly differ to that of the young?
Elderly patients often present with more general symptoms
eg falls and confusion
This can make it difficult accurately diagnose conditions such as infection.
What are iatrogenic issues
Issues that have been caused as a result of health care eg
ADRs, falls, psychological harm.
Describe the brain changes that occur with ageing
and widened sulci between the major gyri
When does brain mass peak?
20 years old
After this peak in brain mass what happens?
Remains stable until around 40-45 years old and then gradually decreases by 2-3% each year
A chronic, progressive, degenerative neurological disease that causes a decrease in cognition.
An acute episode of confusion, usually with a clear precipitant such as an infection or medication. It can resolve but can at times leave people with residual problems.
(Increased frequency in those that have dementia)
What are the two common forms of dementia?
Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.
What MDT may be involved in the rehabilitation of a patient after a heart attack or stroke?
Speech and language therapists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, nurses, carers, follow up neuro or cardiac consultation. Social serves potentially.
What are the areas that a comprehensive geriatric assessment covers?
Physical health, Mental health, Functionality, social and environmental.
Give examples for each of the areas of the CGA
Physical- comorbidity management, diagnosis, nutrition, vision and hearing, review meds.
Mental- dementia, delirium, mood and capacity.
Functionality- mobility, balance and ADLS
Social-formal and informal carers, community and legal
environment- housing, safety, equipment and transport.
What neurological deficit symptoms are often put down to normal ageing by patient but are definitely not normal ageing?
Language deficit, long term memory issues.
Name 4 cognitive screening tests
AMTS- (abreviated mental test score)
MoCA- Montreal cognitive assesment
MMSE- mini mental state evaluation