Flashcards in Adolescence and puberty Deck (23)
The transitional period between childhood and adulthood ( psychological and social changes)
What are the general differences in maturation rate between genders?
Girls starts puberty earlier, have their growth spurt earlier and physically mature earlier by about 2 years.
What groups of teenagers are at a higher risk of depression and substance abuse?
Early maturing girls and late maturing boys.
What neurological changes occur during puberty?
Prefrontal cortex starts decreasing in grey matter density ( previously increasing) and increases in cortical white matter.
The physical changes that occur to reach sexual maturity
When does puberty occur
What physical change occur?
Female- breasts, pubic hair, growth spurt, periods, underarm hair, redistribution of body fat
male- scrotum and testes enlarge, voice deepens, lengthening of penis, pubic, facial and underarm hair and change in body shape (mainly muscle bulk changes)
How has the age of menarche changes over the last 150 years?
It has decreased ( plateuing over the last 3-4 decades)
starting weight has remained constant at 47kgs
How does self estimate and confidence affect mental health.
Low self esteem is associated with depression and anxiety, despite the fact that high self esteem can lead to self confidence. Self confidence on its own is not protective against mental health problems.
What are the areas of social development in adolescence?
How do teenage relationships differ between boys and girls?
Girls form close and confiding relationships
where as boys are less intimate and disclosing.
What are the key features of anoxeria nervosa
Body weight below 15% of expected weight or BMI<17.5
Self induced weight loss
psycho-pathological dread of fatness
endocrine disturbances eg amenorrhea primary or secondary depending on age of suffer, delayed growth.
What are the risk factors for anoxeria?
Genetics, perfectionism, subcultures, childhood abuse,higher social class, social media, bullying, trauma, gymnastics, early puberty and depression.
what is the treatment for anorexia?
Family intervention, CBT and hospital admission for weight restoration.
Why are teenagers so predisposed to risk taking behaviour?
Because there is a developmental mismatch between the dopaminergic reward pathway development and the regulatory/cognitive control pathways.
What is characterised by repetitive and persistent: defiance, tantrums, bullying, fighting, running away from home, cruelty to animals, stealing, destroying property and fire starting.
At frequencies and severity worse than normal
Legally = delinquency
Socially = antisocial behaviour
Psychology= conduct disorder
What are the three main factor domains that contribute to conduct disorder?
Child- eg ADHD
Family eg bad parenting
What is the prognosis for conduct disorder?
drugs and alcohol abuse
What intervention can be made in CD
Target modifiable factors
multi systemic therapy
What are the signs and symptoms of depressions
Low mood, lack of enjoyment, lack of energy, appetite changes, weight changes, sleep changes, decreased concentration, pessimism, guilt, low self confidence, decreased libido, self harm and suicide attempts.
How can the different severities of depression be treated?
Mild- CBT and psychotherapy
moderate- SSRIs and CBT
Severe- same as above.