Flashcards in Act of Union Deck (22)
What battle left Protestantism the prevailing force in England?
Battle of Boyne 1690
King James II defeated
What laws were introduced to ensure Anglican dominance in Ireland?
What percentage of the population was Catholic and what percentage of the land did they own in 1774?
75% of the population
Owned 5% of the land
What percentage of the Irish population did the Anglican Church of Ireland represent?
In 1774 who did the Anglican Church of Ireland have the right to collect tithes from?
The whole population regardless of their religion
Who primarily controlled administration in Ireland before the Act of the Union?
British governments representative in Ireland
How was power of the Irish Parliament limited by:
Poyning’s Law of 1494
Declaratory Act of 1719
Septennial Act of 1715?
Ireland subject to laws of Westminster parliament
Irish parliament could only pass laws approved and suggested by Westminster
Requirement of a general election every 7 years did not apply to Ireland
When was the American War of Independence?
What was the impact of the American War of Independence in Ireland?
Catholics remained loyal to the monarchy but used the war to gain improvements in the penal code
Protestants sympathetic to the revolution, saw themselves suffering in a similar way to the American colonists
How did Ireland gain ‘Legislative Independence’ in 1782 and what did this form?
The formation of Grattan’s Parliament
A result of 40,000 Irish volunteers training and taking nil arms to prevent a French invasion during the American War of Independence but no invasion occurring
How effective was Grattan’s Parliament?
A symbolic step but not a huge change in how Ireland was run.
Why Grattan’s Parliament was not a big change from before?
Lord Lieutenants still influenced Irish policy through pressure and bribery
England maintained a veto through the monarchy
- Irish HoC exclusive & franchise limited
- Anglican Ascendancy dominated
- Catholics couldn’t vote until 1793 & still couldn’t sit in parliament
What year was the Act of the Union passed?
What year was the Act of Union brought into action?
What is the definition of Catholic emancipation?
Increasing the rights and reducing the restrictions of Catholics
Why did Pitt believe that after the Union catholic suffrage would be seen as less dangerous?
Britain would still remain safely Protestant overall
Why was the initial bill dropped under Lord North?
The Ascendancy opposed it, despite British and Irish’s parliament support
Who was given the role of winning over the Irish public?
There are 7 arguments in favour of the Union. How many can you name?
1. Union would strengthen Ireland and Britain against the French and Spanish
2. British government would assume control of defending army, making it stronger
3. In a war, London to Dublin system of governing would be more efficient
4. The Union could preserve the Ascendency
5. Ireland would become part of the strong British economy, experiencing the growth and prosperity of England
6. Roman Catholics would be a minority making Protestants in Ireland less scared making it easier to give Catholics equal rights
7. Moral assimilation, breaking down the old Anglo Saxon / Celt divide
There are 3 arguments against the Act of the Union. How many can you name?
1. Irish nationality, seen as a separate society with distinct institutions and interests so should be able to act in its own interest with own parliament
2. The AA believed Ireland was prospering under their rule
3. Ireland would have little say in the British laws they would be ruled by
Why were the anti-unionists less effective in opposition than they wanted?
The AA remained opposed to the union but some such as Grattan’s supported emancipation and parliament reform, splitting their opposition