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Flashcards in 1.2 Conflict Across America Deck (14)
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Tell me about the fort Laramie treaty in 1851

More Americans were crossing plains and conflict with plains Indians was increasing

The fort Laramie treaty between us government and 4 plain Indian nations (crow, Cheyenne, Sioux and arapahoe) was signed in 17 September 1851

Indians promised not to attack settlers travelling on Oregon trailing and allow some building of roads and forts in their territory - in return each nation had its agreed hunting area and was promised an annual subsidy


How successful was the fort Laramie treaty

seemed to solve Indian problem and pleased negotiators - people who wanted a negotiated solution to the Indian problem who were living in east and a few westerners - westerners worked as Indian agents to gain understanding of their way of life

Negotiators believed that responsibility for Indian affairs should be kept within the bureau of Indian affairs


How did people feel about the treaty

The nation crow did not feel bound by treaty

There were exterminators who believed the Indians were savages and throught the Indian problem required a military solution - aim to wipe out plains Indians - genocide

Exterminators were mainly people living in the west


Tell me the effects of the fort Laramie treaty

Between 1840-1860 while over 250,000 travellers followed the California and Oregon trails, fewer than 400 were killed - 90% killed west of south pass that is not on Great Plains


What was the peace treaty of fort Laramie broken

1858 gold discovered in Rocky Mountains and Colorado gold rush began - in 3 years 100,000 settlers moved on Indian lands but the us government chose not to enforce it

Government did nothing to stop a second development of settlers on plains of Kansas and Nebraska from 1854 onwards

The transport links across plains

There were always warriors or bands who did not feel bound by the agreement


Tell me about the sand creek massacre

Black kettle (chief) of a 800 Indian band camped on sand creek(agreed at peace talks) and black kettle flew an American flag over his tipi to show it was friendly

On 29 November 1864 colonel chivington and 700 soldiers attacked camp and only a few escaped

Chivingtons men took scalps as trophies - some officers refused to attack and

Concluded chivington deliberately planned and executed a foul and dastardly massacre but was never brought to justice


Tell me about the Cheyenne war 1863-67

Travellers, miners and railway surveyors crossing Cheyenne and arapahoe began to attack

In 1865, after reservation made 1000 Sioux, Cheyenne and Arapahoe attacked julesburg and took horses and cattle on southern planes

Soldiers from civil war such as Colorado militia tried to defend settlements

Government agree with Cheyenne to live on a small reservation

Sand creek massacre happened


Tell me about Sioux or red clouds war 1865-68

In 1862 gold was discovered in Rocky Mountains - new mining downs sprang up which crossed Sioux lands and us government did nothing

So Sioux attacked

In 1866 red cloud broke off peace talks and attacked army and in winter they were under siege in their forts
And tried to lure them in to a trap


In the Sioux / red clouds war tell me about the fetterman massacre

Phil Kearney was commanded by colonel carrington who was inexperienced in Indian warfare and during autumn 1866 there were many skirmishes between troops sent to fort and Indians that surrounded it

Carrington took a cautious approach and insisted not to pursue Indians too far from fort - didn't want to be lured into a trap

On 21 December 1867 80 men led by captain William fetterman was lured into a trap by Sioux and killed and mutilated


Took me about red cloud and his achievements

Preventer capture of fort Phil Kearney and made sure it was surrounded by his warriors - the army could not safety move out from fort and travellers could not use Bozeman trail

Red cloud kept together a force of several bands and had Arapaho and Cheyenne allies
- managed to keep them fighting in winter months

Leader of Sioux by 1860s

Force us to negotiate a peace treaty at fort Laramie and gave up its forts on the Bozeman trail


Tell me about the peace treaty

In 1868 the government was forced to admit defeat and change its policy

Government agreed to withdraw forts under terms of second fort Laramie treaty the great Sioux reservation was created

No non Indians were allowed to enter reservation

Red cloud did this but power decreased and many of the Sioux went on to follow young and more militant leader like sitting bull and crazy horse


Tell me about the effects transcontinental railroad 1860-69

Abraham Lincoln wanted to support homesteaders

Over 2000 men died

Sioux revolted and all East Indians killed

Could travel across America now in 7 days

Immigrants such as Chinese still not respected

12,000 acres given for every mile of railroad built by it p


Tell me some problems and solutions of the transcontinental railroad

No/little supplies in west - sent them by boat

Had to cross high Sierra Nevada mountains reaching 7000 feet

Miners and workers left to find gold - replaced with Chinese immigrants who worked harder and faster for less

Violence in east due to drink and gambling - hired the Cossack to kill slackers

Gunpowder not powerful enough in west - used nitroglycerin

In west avalanches destroyed tools and men - built bridges with wooden structure underneath

Too much snow so track blocked and when jt melted some railway was destroyed

In west 1600 feet had to be picked through granite - Chinese had to mine through

Chinese went on strike - starved them so they would return


Tell me about the homestead act

You get 160 acres of free land if you could prove a working farm on the plains in 5 years

It would unite USA and solve Indian problem and deal with immigration

Made it a race and made it quite fair with flags although some people could cheat