1.1 - Expansion: Opportunities And Challenges Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1.1 - Expansion: Opportunities And Challenges Deck (52)
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Why were people in 1840 not interested in the Great Plains

Dismissed it as a desert - infertile land and just useless


Tell me about Texas

In 1845 the us took over Texas

In 1820s others settled in Mexican state of Texas

Texas declared itself a republic in 1836


Tell me the belief in manifest destiny

Many Americans began to believe they should occupy country from east to west

It was gods will - bring with them their ideas and beliefs of Christianity, freedom and democracy

Believed they would occupy land better than existing people eg Mexican or Hispanic

So it made it right to go to war if necessary to achieve their destiny


Tell me about the first group of Americans to travel west

They were fur trappers - became known as mountain men - thousands of pioneer farmers followed mountain men


Why did people go out west

Pull of good farming, better climate or excitement of new

Pushed by the economic depression in eastern states that led to wage cuts, increased unemployment and loss of savings when banks collapsed

Crop prices fell in eastern states - there were fertile farmlands in Oregon and California


How long was the journeys for pioneers

4-6 months


Tell me about the plains of travelling out west

Early summer storms - trails became mud and could take 2 months to cross the plains


Tell me about entering the Rockies

The wagons passed through Sioux territory, water was poor and trail became much steeper


Tell me about the Sierra Nevada as an obstacle for pioneers

Early snowfall was a major hazard as the wagons were winched and hoisted across mountains


Tell me problems about the Utah desert travelling west

There was very little water and it was very hot


Tell me about Brigham Young

Became leader in 1845 - after Joseph smith was murdered

Born 1801

Successfully organised moving thousands of Mormons across great plain and ensured Salt Lake City was a success

Supported polygamy - 55 wives


Why did people hate the Mormons

Mormans faced hostility from Gentiles (non Mormons) as they worked hard and were successful - people were jealous

Mormons believe they were gods chosen people and that they were against slavery angered others


Tell me about the divisions between mormans

When they settled in nauvoo in Illinois - they had armed forces and numbers grew

But when Joseph smith announced that god had told him polygamy was okay - it divided Mormons and Gentiles were shocked - many believed it was a sin


How was Joseph smith killed

When he announced he was standing for president - he was arrested and jailed in town of Carthage

On June 27 1845 a mob attacked the jail and smith was murdered


Where did Brigham Young choose to take the Mormons

The great salt lake, east of the Rocky Mountains


Tell me 4 reasons why Mormons moved to the great salt lake

The area was very isolated

Reports suggested there was water and fertile farming land available

Would allow Mormons to live close and retain religious beliefs and practices

It was in Mexico and not United States


How did Brigham Young move 16,000 across the plains and Rocky Mountains

During winter months oxen, food and equipment were bought and wagons built

In Feb 1846 groups set off across Mississippi to build the first chain of rest stops across the plains, also set up faculties to repair wagons and plant crops

- then Mormons would travel in a steady stream of seperate wagon trails - each about 100 wagons


How did Brigham Young survive the winters

Winters on plains were harsh were harsh

Food and fuel ran low and over 700 died in the winter quarters
- rest survived


Tell me about the pioneer band

In the spring Brigham Young led a pioneer band onwards through the south pass in the Rockies to the great salt lake, clearing the path for the rest of wagons to follow


How did Brigham settle Salt Lake City

Young was able to ensure the church allocated land to people according to their needs

Access to water was managed by a system of irrigation ditches and a timetable for when induviduals could draw off water for their own plots

Working as a co-operative - they could feed themselves


What happened to the Mormons after Mexican American war

Salt Lake City became us territory and Young founded a new state called Deseret, government refused but the territory of Utah was created - smaller than Deseret and Young was appointed first governor


How did Mormons attract converts

Missionaries sent to Europe and South America to gather converts

A perpetual emigrating fund was established to pay for their travel to Utah - population of Utah grew, Mormons became self sufficient p


Who were the fourth group of Americans to go out west

Forty-niners, they sought wealth


When and where was gold discovered

In 1848 a carpenter building a saw mill in foothills of California's Sierra Nevada mountain range discovered gold


How did the news of gold spread

Spread was slow until it was picked up by a San Francisco newspaper - spread rapidly,

Gold rush had people arriving from around the world


How did population change in California

Rocketed from 15,000 in the summer of 1848 to nearly 250,000 by 1852


How did people collect gold

Early miners used a pick and shovel and washing pan

Lager the cradle was developed that was basically just a massive version of a pan


What were the tensions in mining towns

No organised forces of law and order; the area was still under military control following the Mexican-American war

Disputes between miners and local Californians

Disputes between miners over mining claims


Tell me about the racial tensions in mining towns

Made worse between Americans and Hispanics

Chinese labourers

Slaves not allowed to stay


When was gold rush over

In 1852 gold rush was over and many miners moved on searching for gold in Rocky Mountains