Which endocrine glands are associated with the menstrual cycle?
Anterior pituitary gland
Which hormones are involved in the menstrual cycle?
Oestradiol (which is a type of oestrogen)
What are the four phases of the menstrual cycle?
How long does the menstrual cycle last on average?
Range = 21 - 35 days
How long does menstruation typically last?
3 - 8 days
When in the menstrual cycle does ovulation occur?
About halfway through
What is an ovarian follicle?
Fluid filled sac which contains an egg
During the follicular phase, oestrogen levels are (high / low).
Low oestrogen levels
What does the anterior pituitary do during the follicular phase?
Secretes FSH and LH
What type of special follicle develops in response to FSH secretion by the anterior pituitary gland?
i.e the follicle which will actually release an egg
Which type of cells are found around the egg in the leading follicle?
What do granulosa cells release into the leading follicle?
What particular processes does FSH cause in the leading follicle?
Growth of the follicle itself
Growth of granulosa cells, which release oestradiol
What effect does oestradiol have on the uterus?
Causes uterine wall to thicken
What is ovulation?
Release of an unfertilised egg from the ovaries
Happens at the end of the follicular phase
Which hormonal change triggers ovulation?
What triggers the LH surge which causes ovulation?
(produced by granulosa cells)
How does the follicle release the egg during ovulation?
Proteolytic enzymes digest the walls of the follicle
Where is the egg released during ovulation?
Into the Fallopian tubes
What are other names for the Fallopian tubes?
Which phase of the menstrual cycle occurs after ovulation?
What colour are granulosa cells?
What is the name given to the granulosa cells remaining after ovulation?
What hormone does the corpus luteum produce?
When does peak progesterone production by the corpus luteum occur?
Roughly one week after ovulation
e.g Day 21
What happens to the corpus luteum after the luteal phase if pregnancy occurs?
Placenta produces hCG which preserves the corpus luteum
=> Physiological amenorrhoea
Which phase occurs if there is no pregnancy after the luteal phase?
During menstruation, progesterone levels (increase / decrease).
Corpus luteum disintegrates
What is found in menses?
Tissue (mainly uterine wall)
Changes in which hormones are seen in
a) Ovulation => oestradiol increase, LH surge
b) Menstruation => progesterone decrease as corpus luteum disintegrates