1: Physiology and pharmacology - Reproduction/Sex steroid axis Flashcards Preview

Endocrine Week 5 2017/18 > 1: Physiology and pharmacology - Reproduction/Sex steroid axis > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1: Physiology and pharmacology - Reproduction/Sex steroid axis Deck (83)
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1

Which endocrine glands are associated with the menstrual cycle?

Hypothalamus

Anterior pituitary gland

Ovaries

2

Which hormones are involved in the menstrual cycle?

GnRH

FSH

LH

Oestradiol (which is a type of oestrogen)

Progesterone

3

What are the four phases of the menstrual cycle?

Follicular phase

Ovulation

Luteal phase

Menstruation

4

How long does the menstrual cycle last on average?

28 days

Range = 21 - 35 days

5

How long does menstruation typically last?

3 - 8 days

6

When in the menstrual cycle does ovulation occur?

14 days

About halfway through

7

What is an ovarian follicle?

Fluid filled sac which contains an egg

8

During the follicular phase, oestrogen levels are (high / low).

Low oestrogen levels

9

What does the anterior pituitary do during the follicular phase?

Secretes FSH and LH

10

What type of special follicle develops in response to FSH secretion by the anterior pituitary gland?

Leading follicle

i.e the follicle which will actually release an egg

11

Which type of cells are found around the egg in the leading follicle?

Granulosa cells

12

What do granulosa cells release into the leading follicle?

Oestradiol

13

What particular processes does FSH cause in the leading follicle?

Growth of the follicle itself

Growth of granulosa cells, which release oestradiol

14

What effect does oestradiol have on the uterus?

Causes uterine wall to thicken

15

What is ovulation?

Release of an unfertilised egg from the ovaries

Happens at the end of the follicular phase

16

Which hormonal change triggers ovulation?

LH surge

17

What triggers the LH surge which causes ovulation?

Raised oestradiol

(produced by granulosa cells)

18

How does the follicle release the egg during ovulation?

Proteolytic enzymes digest the walls of the follicle

19

Where is the egg released during ovulation?

Into the Fallopian tubes

20

What are other names for the Fallopian tubes?

Uterine tubes

Salpinges

21

Which phase of the menstrual cycle occurs after ovulation?

Luteal phase

22

What colour are granulosa cells?

Yellow

23

What is the name given to the granulosa cells remaining after ovulation?

Corpus luteum

24

What hormone does the corpus luteum produce?

Progesterone

25

When does peak progesterone production by the corpus luteum occur?

Roughly one week after ovulation

e.g Day 21

26

What happens to the corpus luteum after the luteal phase if pregnancy occurs?

Placenta produces hCG which preserves the corpus luteum

=> Physiological amenorrhoea

27

Which phase occurs if there is no pregnancy after the luteal phase?

Menstruation

28

During menstruation, progesterone levels (increase / decrease).

Why?

decrease

Corpus luteum disintegrates

29

What is found in menses?

Tissue (mainly uterine wall)

Blood

Unfertilised egg

30

Changes in which hormones are seen in

a) ovulation

b) menstruation?

a) Ovulation => oestradiol increase, LH surge

b) Menstruation => progesterone decrease as corpus luteum disintegrates