What infection can cause infertility?
The ___ you are, the less fertile you are.
A BMI over __ significantly increases your risk of infertility and complications of pregnancy.
What is the WHO definition of infertility?
Failure to achieve pregnancy after 12 months of unprotected intercourse in a couple who have never had a child (without a known reason)
What is primary infertility?
Infertility in a couple who have never conceived
What is secondary infertility?
Infertility in a couple who have previously conceived
Under which age are you more likely to conceive?
At which point in the menstrual cycle is conception most likely?
Which lifestyle factors affect the chances of conception?
What are the three general causes of infertility?
Female factors (i.e problems with tubes, reduced egg reserves, endometrosis)
Mixture of the two
What is the name for failure to release an egg?
When is anovulation normal?
Which eating disorders can cause anovulation?
associated low BMI
What are some clinical features of anorexia nervosa?
BMI < 18.5
Which endocrine gland functions abnormally in anorexia nervosa?
Which hormonal changes are seen in anorexia nervosa?
... and oestradiol release
Which pituitary tumour can cause anovulation?
Which syndrome causes infarction of the anterior pituitary gland post-partum?
What is the commonest endocrine disorder in woman and causes anovulation?
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
What are the clinical features of polycystic ovary syndrome?
Oligo- or amenorrhoea
Hyperandrogenism symptoms - acne, hirsutism, obesity
What hormone changes are seen in polycystic ovary syndrome?
High free testosterone
(Remember that PCOS causes insulin resistance > hyperinsulinaemia. That causes the inhibition of sex hormone-binding globulin, which usually mops up testosterone, and increases the levels of LH for some reason.)
What three factors are diagnostic of PCOS?
2 of Rotterdam criteria:
1. Oligo- or amenorrhoea
2. Ultrasound evidence of polycystic ovaries
3. Symptoms of hyperandrogenism - acne, hirsutism, obesity
What genetic syndrome causes premature ovarian failure and therefore infertility?
What is the karyotype of Turner's syndrome?
What are the clinical features of premature ovarian failure?
Menopausal symptoms - hot flushes, night sweats, atrophic vaginitis (most commonly manifesting as dryness)
In premature ovarian failure, negative feedback of the HPO axis kicks in - what hormonal changes are seen?
High FSH and LH
in an attempt to compensate for ovarian failure
but low oestradiol
because the ovaries can't produce any
Which other endocrine diseases cause menstrual symptoms and can lead to infertility?
Hyper and hypothyroidism
Tumours producing ___ can cause virilisation and infertility.
Which drugs are designed to cause infertility?
In females, problems with the ___ tubes themselves can cause infertility.