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Flashcards in Word recognition Deck (33)
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What did Moon et al (2013) find about babies hearing and sucking dummies?

- 30-hour old babies were exposed to vowels unique to their mother’s language (English or Swedish) and to vowels unique to the other language.
- Babies sucked their dummy harder when listening to the foreign language – not already familiar with
-Hearing system is mature enough 7 months after conception, babies can learn about speech
- Suggests that babies listen to speech in the womb and are learning about it!


Which two characteristics of speech make word recognition difficult?

- The segmentation problem (ice cream vs I scream)
- The invariance problem


What is the segmentation problem?

- Speech is a continuous stream of sound. No white spaces between words


What are the solutions to the segmentation problem?

-Possible word-constraint (Norris et al., 1997), “fapple” vs. “wuffapple” - any segmentation that results in impossible words is likely rejected (e.g. “fapple”), segmented into wuff sound and apple
- Stress (Cutler & Butterfield, 1992) - first syllable typically stressed, “conduct ascents uphill” heard as “the doctor sends the bill” (stressed syllable underlined)
-Different languages have different strategies


What is the Invariance problem?

- Speech sounds (e.g. phonemes) are shaped by external factors.
- Co-articulation - /b/ in “bill”, “ball”, “bull”, “bell” is acoustically different
-Bacon example: lean, bacon, lean bacon (how tongue and lips move)
-Has to take in variability, makes speech more fluent
- Dialect, accent, speech rate…


What is the - Phoneme restoration effect (Warren & Warren, 1970) ?

– cough sound replacing a phoneme harder to detect what word is being affected compared to silencing a phoneme
-The state governors met with their respective legislature convening in the capital city (sentence example)
-Mind constantly filling in missing gaps in speech


What was the *eel test?

- It was found that the *eel was on the orange (peel)
-It was found that the *eel was on the axle (wheel)
-It was found that the *eel was on the shoe (heel)
-It was found that the *eel was on the table (meal)
-Cough in front of eel changing how word is heard


Two of the most prominent theories in spoken language are ...

TRACE and the Cohort model


What is TRACE (McClelland and Elman, 1986)?

-Word units (e.g. cat, bad, bat)
-Phoneme units (activated at this level, starts to inhibit competing phonemes. Inhibition makes it easier for one phoneme to be the dominant one)
-Feature units
- Information can flow bottom-up and top-down across the three levels!


What does TRACE explain?

- TRACE can explain context effects
-This is because it allows higher-level information to affect lower-level information (top-down effects)


What does TRACE overestimate and what's an example of this?

- TRACE overestimates the influence of context and predicts top-down effects where they do not exist
- Frauenfelder et al. (1990): TRACE predicts it’s hard to detect /t/ in (French) nonword vocabutaire because of the similar real word vocabulaire. Data did not support prediction.
-French participants heard French words and non-words


What is the Cohort model - Marslen-Wilson (1984)?

-Speech unfolds overtime compared to written language
- table tea tide tomorrow tooth traffic trainer and all other words that begin with the /t/ phoneme!
-When more information/phonemes of the word come in you can eliminate words which don’t match the cohort
-Remove competitors, allows you to eliminate all but one candidate


In the original Cohort model, the selection stage is influenced by...

- In the original Cohort model, the selection stage is influenced by the auditory presentation of the word (like seen in previous slides) and the semantic or syntactic context
- A word can be recognised before its uniqueness point if context supports only one candidate in the cohort
-Example: “The poacher ignored the sign not to tres-” … In this sentence context “trespass” has a recognition point that comes before the uniqueness point


The original Cohort model failed to deal with two problems, which are?

-If the first phoneme is mispronounced or misperceived, the word should never be recognised
-but hearing focabulaire activates vocabulaire (Frauenfelder et al., 2001)


-Context does not eliminate words from the cohort! What happened in Zwitserlood(1989) semantic priming experiment?

-E.g. the word ‘cap’ being primed to ship and money
- The part-word cap… semantically primes both ship and money. So both captain and capital were activated when hearing cap….
-Another example: “With dampened spirits the men stood around the grave. They mourned the loss of their cap…”. Original Cohort model says capital should be eliminated from the cohort by the sentence context. But it was not! Cap.. still primes money!


What is the revised cohort model (Marslen-Wilson, 1990)?

- The Revised Cohort model solved the two problems
-Context no longer allowed to influence early stages, including the initial cohort, i.e. the revised model is less interactive, more bottomup.
-Words are not totally eliminated from cohort, instead their activation level decreases and can be revived later if new information comes in (this deals with mispronunciations etc)


Recognising spoken words is difficult because of...

– the segmentation problem (where does a word start and where does it end)
– the invariance problem (phonemes sound different in different contexts)


Is reading innate?

- Reading is not an innate skill
-Reading has to be taught and learned
-We learn to understand and produce speech before we learn to read
-So does spoken language processing (phonology) play a role in written language processing (orthography)?


What did Van Ordern (1987) find with homophomes?

- “Is this a flower: ROWS” – sounds like rose but doesn’t look like rose
-“Is this a flower: ROBS” – easier to decipher
- The former is more difficult to get right


Is phonology associated with reading?

- Phonology can sometimes make reading easier
-Phonological neighbourhood (neighbours differ in one phoneme: gate, bait, get) size: bigger is better
-Phonological priming (klip primes clip, even if klip didn’t reach consciousness)


What are theories of visual word recognition?

- Interactive activation model (McClelland & Rumelhart, 1981)
-Dual-route cascaded model (Coltheart et al., 2001)
-The connectionist triangle model (Harm & Seidenberg, 2004)


What is the Interactive activation model - McClelland and Rumelhart, 1981 made up of?

-Word units
-Letter units
-Feature units
- Arrows = excitatory, Circles = inhibitory


What is the Dual-route cascaded model - Coltheart et al 2001?

-Different routes from seeing a word printed then converting it into speech
-Route 2: make contact with orthographic input lexicon (list of all the words you know), feed activation to word meanings, then enter phonological output system (how words are pronounced)
-Route 3: short cut, bypass the meanings


What happens in route 1 of the DRCM?

- Route 1: Grapheme-phoneme conversion
-Grapheme is the visual unit that corresponds to a phoneme (i in “pig”, igh in “high”)
-Conversion rules used to convert each grapheme into a phoneme. Rules determined by the most common grapheme-phoneme association in the language
-Good for regular words and non-words, bad for irregular words!


What happens with route 1 and surface dyslexia?

- Route 1: Grapheme-phoneme conversion
-Patients with surface dyslexia have access only to Route 1
-Patient KT (McCarthy & Warrington, 1984)
-100% accurate on reading nonwords
-81% accurate on reading regular words
-41% accurate on irregular words


What are the differences between route 2 and 3?

- Route 2: Lexicon + semantics
-Route 3: Lexicon only
-Orthographic input lexicon stores the spelling of all the words you know
-Activates meaning and/or phonology
-Good for reading all familiar words, bad for reading unfamiliar word


What is phonological dyslexia and what routes do they have access to?

-Find with reading familiar words, impaired with unfamiliar words and non-words
- Patients with phonological dyslexia have access only to Routes 2 and 3
-Patient data (Caccappolo-van Vliet et al., 2004)
-Above 90% correct on both regular and irregular familiar words
-Less than 60% correct on unfamiliar words and nonwords


What are the problems with DRC?

- Semantics is important in reading but DRC vague about how or why
-Underestimates phonological influence
-Doesn’t explain how reading is learned


What is the Connectionist triangle model - Harm and Seidenberg 2004?

- Two possible routes to take you from spelling to sound:
1. Direct pathway from orthography to phonology
2. Indirect pathway from orthography to phonology via semantics
- Highly interactive model: all types of knowledge can influence reading.
-Activating information in the orthography unit first (when reading), makes you respond such as reading out loud
-Doesn’t have different routes


What is the Taze and Tave test? (CTM)

-Taze is a consistent nonword because its neighbours have consistent pronunciations (e.g. gaze, laze, maze), all sound the same, highly consistent non-word
-Tave is an inconsistent nonword because its neighbours have many different pronunciations (e.g. gave, save, have), sound different despite ending in -ave
-People struggle to read inconsistent words, because there are no rules, existing knowledge of similarity is unhelpful