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Flashcards in winter final Deck (87)
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1

zidovudine

NRTI
thymidine analog
3'-azido group instead of 3'-hydroxyl
SE: anemia, neutropenia, **GI, bone marrow toxicity

2

didanosine

NRTI
purine nucleoside; ddATP active metabolite
lack free 3'-hydroxyl group
chain termination
**SE: peripheral neuropathy, pancreatitis, GI

3

lamivudine

NRTI
also active against Hep B
combination with abacavir --> tx naive pts

4

abacavir

NRTI
SE: hypersensitivity, rash, fever, resp or GI
combination with lamivudine --> tx naive pts

5

emtricitabine

NRTI
also active against Hep B
5-fluorinated derivative of lamivudine
best tolerated
SE: hyperpigmentation of palms and soles
combination with tenofovir --> preferred for tx naive pts

6

tenofovir

nucleoTIDE RTI
active against Hep B
SE: *N/V/diarrhea, renal toxicity
combination with emtricitabine --> preferred for tx naive pts

7

efavirenz

NNRTI
substrate for cyt p450
SE: *dizziness, headache, insomnia, inability to concentrate, neural tube defects

8

ritonavir

protease inhibitor
metabolized by cyt p450
SE: *circumoral and peripheral paresthesia - numbness and tingling

9

indinavir

protease inhibitor
metab by cyt p450
SE: *nephrolithiasis, dermatologic
combination with nucleoside analogs

10

nelfinavir

protease inhibitor
most commonly used
metab by cyt p450
SE: *GI

11

atazanavir

protease inhibitor
metab by cyt p450
SE: GI

12

chloroquine

blood schizonticide
clinical cure for all forms
prophlyactic use
*caution with liver dz
SE: tinnitus, GI (take with food), retinal and corneal toxicity

13

hydroxychloroquine

blood schizonticide
clinical cure for all forms
prophlyactic use
anti-inflam at high doses
*caution with liver dz
SE: tinnitus, GI (take with food), retinal and corneal toxicity

14

quinine

blood schizonticide
gametocytocidal (vivax, malariae)
SE: tinnitus, blurred vision, skeletal muscle relaxation, cinchonism

15

mefloquine

blood schizonticide
prophylactic
SE: seizures, aggravate latent psychoses, potential cardiac and CNS toxicity

16

pyrimethamine

anti-malarial
inhibit DHF reductase
inhibit folic acid synthesis
some effect on secondary tissue forms
prophylactic
combine with sulfonamides

17

proguanil

anti-malarial
inhibit DHF reductase
inhibit folic acid synthesis
some effect on secondary tissue forms
prophylactic
combine with sulfonamides

18

atovaquone

blood schizonticide
depolarize mitochondria and inhibit electron transport
prophylactic
SE: rare; headache, abd pain

19

artemisinin

blood schizonticide

20

artemether

blood schizonticide
becoming primary drug
can be given IM for life-threatening p. falciparum

21

doxycycline, tetracycline

blood schizonticide
alternative, adjunctive for malaria

22

primaquine

tissue schizonticide
will not suppress disease once developed
can kill secondary vivax and ovale
can prevent initial development of parasite in liver - use as follow up
SE: *hemolytic anemia especially if have G6PD deficiency

23

albendazole

antihelminthic
inhibit microtubule polymerization
SE: teratogenic, *hepatotoxicity, leukopenia

24

treatment for enteriobius vermicularis (nematode, pinworm)

albendazole
pyrantel

25

treatment for ascaris lumbricoides (nematode, roundworm)

albendazole
pyrantel

26

treatment for necator americanus (nematode, hookworm)

albendazole

27

treatment for taenia solium (cestode, pork tapeworm)

praziquantel

28

pyrantel

antihelminthic
broad spectrum OTC
paralyzes worms
(activate cholinergic nicotinic receptors of muscles --> depolarizing neuromuscular blockade --> worm becomes paralyzed)
SE: caution if liver failure, GI

29

praziquantel

antihelminthic
broad spectrum
against trematodes and tapeworms (cestodes)
increase Ca influx --> induce muscle contractions --> spastic paralysis
suckers become dislodged
SE: GI, increase liver enyzymes

30

metronidazole

antiprotozoal
tx giardia, amebiasis