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Flashcards in VPC Deck (14)
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1

VPC

  • Think of a VPC as a logical datacenter in AWS
  • Consists of IGW's (access to Internet) or Virtual Private Gateways (access to on-premises data center through VPN and Direct Connect connections), Route Tables, Network Access Control Lists, Subnets, Security Groups
  • 1 Subnet = 1 Availability Zone (subnets do not span Availability Zones). Each subnet has a CIDR range.
  • Security Groups are Stateful, Network Access Control Lists are Stateless
  • A network address translation (NAT) server provides outbound Internet access for EC2 instances in private subnets

VPC

  • Think of a VPC as a logical datacenter in AWS
  • Consists of IGW's (access to Internet) or Virtual Private Gateways (access to on-premises data center through VPN and Direct Connect connections), Route Tables, Network Access Control Lists, Subnets, Security Groups
  • 1 Subnet = 1 Availability Zone (subnets do not span Availability Zones). Each subnet has a CIDR range.
  • Security Groups are Stateful, Network Access Control Lists are Stateless
  • A network address translation (NAT) server provides outbound Internet access for EC2 instances in private subnets

2

What is a Route Table?

Route tables determine where network traffic is directed.

  • Each subnet in your VPC must be associated with a route table.
  • Your VPC automatically comes with a main route table that you can modify.
  • You can create additional custom route tables for your VPC.
  • Each route in a table specifies a destination CIDR and a target.

Common routes:

  • Internet gateway (IGW)
  • Virtual private gateway (VGW)
  • Network address translation (NAT)
  • VPC peering

What is a Route Table?

Route tables determine where network traffic is directed.

  • Each subnet in your VPC must be associated with a route table.
  • Your VPC automatically comes with a main route table that you can modify.
  • You can create additional custom route tables for your VPC.
  • Each route in a table specifies a destination CIDR and a target.

Common routes:

  • Internet gateway (IGW)
  • Virtual private gateway (VGW)
  • Network address translation (NAT)
  • VPC peering

3

VPC Peering

  • Allows you to connect one VPC with another via a direct network route using private IP addresses
  • Instances behave as if they were on the same private network
  • You can peer VPC's with other AWS accounts as well as with other VPCs in the same account
  • VPCs reside in the same region
  • Peering is in a star configuration, i.e. 1 central VPC peers with 4 others.
  • You cannot create a VPC peering connection between VPCs that have matching or overlapping CIDR blocks
  • Transitive Peering is NOT supported!
  • Only one between any two VPCs!

VPC Peering

  • Allows you to connect one VPC with another via a direct network route using private IP addresses
  • Instances behave as if they were on the same private network
  • You can peer VPC's with other AWS accounts as well as with other VPCs in the same account
  • VPCs reside in the same region
  • Peering is in a star configuration, i.e. 1 central VPC peers with 4 others.
  • You cannot create a VPC peering connection between VPCs that have matching or overlapping CIDR blocks
  • Transitive Peering is NOT supported!
  • Only one between any two VPCs!

4

VPC Diagram - Step 1

  • Create a VPC
    • Define CIDR block (IP ranges)
    • By default, default Network ACL and default Route Table are created

VPC Diagram - Step 1

  • Create a VPC
    • Define CIDR block (IP ranges)
    • By default, default Network ACL and default Route Table are created

5

VPC Diagram - Step 2

  • Create subnets (public & private) inside the VPC (subnets do not span Availability Zones). Each subnet has a CIDR range
  • Create an Internet Gateway. IGW allows subnets to route to public Internet
  • Create a custom route table (for public subnet)
  • Attach the Internet Gateway to our custom route
  • Adjust our public subnet to use the newly defined route
  • Provision an EC2 instance with an Elastic IP address (needs this or an ELB to have access to Internet!)
  • Create Security Group
  • Allow inbound connections to 10.0.1.0/24 and 10.0.2.0/24 on HTTP and HTTPS
  • Allow outbound connections on HTTP and HTTPS for all traffic

VPC Diagram - Step 2

  • Create subnets (public & private) inside the VPC (subnets do not span Availability Zones). Each subnet has a CIDR range
  • Create an Internet Gateway. IGW allows subnets to route to public Internet
  • Create a custom route table (for public subnet)
  • Attach the Internet Gateway to our custom route
  • Adjust our public subnet to use the newly defined route
  • Provision an EC2 instance with an Elastic IP address (needs this or an ELB to have access to Internet!)
  • Create Security Group
  • Allow inbound connections to 10.0.1.0/24 and 10.0.2.0/24 on HTTP and HTTPS
  • Allow outbound connections on HTTP and HTTPS for all traffic

6

VPC Diagram - Step 3 - NAT Instance

  • Provisioned our NAT instance inside our public subnet
  • Disabled Source/Destination Check
  • Set up a route on our private subnets to route through the NAT instance

VPC Diagram - Step 3 - NAT Instance

  • Provisioned our NAT instance inside our public subnet
  • Disabled Source/Destination Check
  • Set up a route on our private subnets to route through the NAT instance

7

VPC Diagram - Step 3 - NAT Gateway

VPC Diagram - Step 3 - NAT Gateway

8

VPC - NAT instances

  • When creating a NAT instance, disable Source/Destination Check on the instance
  • NAT instance must be in a public subnet
  • There must be a route out of the private subnet to the NAT instance, in order for this to work
  • NAT needs a public IP address
  • The amout of traffic that NAT instances supports, depends on the instance size. If you are bottlenecking, increase the instance size
  • You can create high availability using Autoscaling Groups, multiple subnets in different AZ's and a script to automate failover
  • NAT instances are always behing a Security Group

 

 

VPC - NAT instances

  • When creating a NAT instance, disable Source/Destination Check on the instance
  • NAT instance must be in a public subnet
  • There must be a route out of the private subnet to the NAT instance, in order for this to work
  • NAT needs a public IP address
  • The amout of traffic that NAT instances supports, depends on the instance size. If you are bottlenecking, increase the instance size
  • You can create high availability using Autoscaling Groups, multiple subnets in different AZ's and a script to automate failover
  • NAT instances are always behing a Security Group

9

VPC - NAT Gateways

  • Scale automatically up to 10Gbps
  • No need to patch
  • Not associated with security groups
  • Automatically assigned a Public IP address
  • Remember to update your route tables
  • No need to disable Source/Destination Checks

VPC - NAT Gateways

  • Scale automatically up to 10Gbps
  • No need to patch
  • Not associated with security groups
  • Automatically assigned a Public IP address
  • Remember to update your route tables
  • No need to disable Source/Destination Checks

10

VPC - Network ACL's

  • Your VPC automatically comes with a default network ACL and by default it allows all outbound and inbound traffic
  • You can create a custom Network ACL. By default, each custom Network ACL denies all inbound and outbound traffic until you add rules
  • Each subnet in your VPC must be associated with a network ACL. If you don't explicitly  associate a subnet with a Network ACL, the subnet is automatically associated with the default Network ACL
  • You can associate Network ACL with multiple subnets. However a subnet can be associated with only one Network ACL at a time. When you associate a Network ACL with a subnet, the previous association is removed
  • A Network ACL contains a numbered list of rules that is evaluated in order, starting with the lowest numbered rule
  • A Network ACL has separate inbound and outbound rules, and each rule can either allow or deny traffic
  • Network ACLs are stateless; responses to allowed inbound traffic are subject to the rules for outbound traffic (and vice versa)

VPC - Network ACL's

  • Your VPC automatically comes with a default network ACL and by default it allows all outbound and inbound traffic
  • You can create a custom Network ACL. By default, each custom Network ACL denies all inbound and outbound traffic until you add rules
  • Each subnet in your VPC must be associated with a network ACL. If you don't explicitly  associate a subnet with a Network ACL, the subnet is automatically associated with the default Network ACL
  • You can associate Network ACL with multiple subnets. However a subnet can be associated with only one Network ACL at a time. When you associate a Network ACL with a subnet, the previous association is removed
  • A Network ACL contains a numbered list of rules that is evaluated in order, starting with the lowest numbered rule
  • A Network ACL has separate inbound and outbound rules, and each rule can either allow or deny traffic
  • Network ACLs are stateless; responses to allowed inbound traffic are subject to the rules for outbound traffic (and vice versa)

11

VPC - Security Groups vs Network ACL

VPC - Security Groups vs Network ACL

Security Group Network ACL Operates at the instance level (first layer of defense) Operates at the subnet level (second layer of defense) Supports allow rules only Supports allow rules and deny rules Is stateful: Return traffic is automatically allowed, regardless of any rules Is stateless: Return traffic must be explicitly allowed by rules We evaluate all rules before deciding whether to allow traffic We process rules in number order when deciding whether to allow traffic Applies to an instance only if someone specifies the security group when launching the instance, or associates the security group with the instance later on Automatically applies to all instances in the subnets it's associated with (backup layer of defense, so you don't have to rely on someone specifying the security group)

12

VPC - NAT vs Bastions

  • A NAT is used to provide internet traffic to EC2 instances in private subnets
  • A Bastion is used to securely administer EC2 instances (using SSH or RDP) in private subnets (from public subnet).

VPC - NAT vs Bastions

  • A NAT is used to provide internet traffic to EC2 instances in private subnets
  • A Bastion is used to securely administer EC2 instances (using SSH or RDP) in private subnets (from public subnet).

13

Elastic IP

  • is a static IP address designed for dynamic cloud computing
  • is associated with AWS account, and not a particular instance
  • can be remapped from one instance to an other instance
  • is charged for non usage, if not linked for any instance or instance associated is in stopped state or if you have assigned more than 1 EIP to one instance

Elastic IP

  • is a static IP address designed for dynamic cloud computing
  • is associated with AWS account, and not a particular instance
  • can be remapped from one instance to an other instance
  • is charged for non usage, if not linked for any instance or instance associated is in stopped state or if you have assigned more than 1 EIP to one instance

14

Direct Connect vs VPN

A VPC VPN Connection establish encrypted network connectivity between your intranet and Amazon VPC over the Internet. VPN Connections can be configured in minutes and are a good solution if you have an immediate need, have low to modest bandwidth requirements, and can tolerate the inherent variability in Internet-based connectivity. AWS Direct Connect does not involve the Internet; instead, it uses dedicated, private network connections between your intranet and Amazon VPC.

  • Expensive to Setup and Takes time vs Cheap & Immediate
  • Dedicated private connections vs Internet
  • Reduced data transfer rate vs Internet data transfer cost
  • Consistent performance vs Internet inherent variability
  • Do not provide Redundancy vs Provides Redundancy

Direct Connect vs VPN

A VPC VPN Connection establish encrypted network connectivity between your intranet and Amazon VPC over the Internet. VPN Connections can be configured in minutes and are a good solution if you have an immediate need, have low to modest bandwidth requirements, and can tolerate the inherent variability in Internet-based connectivity. AWS Direct Connect does not involve the Internet; instead, it uses dedicated, private network connections between your intranet and Amazon VPC.

  • Expensive to Setup and Takes time vs Cheap & Immediate
  • Dedicated private connections vs Internet
  • Reduced data transfer rate vs Internet data transfer cost
  • Consistent performance vs Internet inherent variability
  • Do not provide Redundancy vs Provides Redundancy