Flashcards in Unit 1 Deck (83)
What is a proteome?
Entire set of proteins expressed by a genome
Give two reasons why the proteome is larger than the genome?
- Alternative RNA Splicing
- Post Translation Modification
Describe the structure of an amino acid
- Central Carbon Group
- NH2 Amine Group
- COOH Carboxylic Group
- Variable R group
What are the two main groups present in all amino acids?
Carboxylic Acid Group(COOH)
What are the four classifications of R groups?
Describe the features of an Acidic R group
Contains a COOH
What classification of R groups contains an amide group and is positively charged?
How are amino acids joined together?
What is the primary structure of a protein?
Order of amino acids in a peptide chain
What causes secondary structure?
What are the two main folding motifs?
Describe the Alpha Helix
Helical structure with four residues per turn
Describe the Beta Sheet
Polypeptide chain linked together side by side, can be parallel or antiparallel
Name some of the possible interactions that can cause tertiary structure of the protein
-Van der Waals
Where are hydrophobic interactions typically found?
Towards the inside of the polypeptide
What two molecules do ionic bonds occur between?
COO- and NH3+
What bonds occur between covalent bonds between R groups of Cysteines
What prosthetic group does Myoglobin contain?
Give an example of a protein that contains a carbohydrate prosthetic group?
What prosthetic group does Lipoprotein contain?
Give an example of a protein that contains a nucleic acid prosthetic group?
What effect does PH have on a protein?
-Affects the concentration of H+ and OH- Ions in solution
-Changes charge of protein
-Places stress on polar interactions such as hydrogen and ionic bonding
-Denature the protein
Give an example of a protein which contains Quaternary structure
Describe Quaternary Stucture of a protein
Different subunits of polypeptide chains joined together
What is a Cytoplasmic Protein?
Proteins found in the cytoplasm
Hydrophyllic R groups on the surface
Example: Enzymes and Hormones
What are the two classifications of proteins at the membrane?
What is the function of Integral Proteins?
Found within the membrane, act as channels or transporters
How are integral proteins held in the protein?
Strong Hydrophobic Interactions
What is a Ligand?
A substance which can bind to a protein