What is acute abdomen?
A combination of symptoms and signs including abdominal pain, which results in the patient being referred for an urgen general surgical opinion
What is the aetiology of acute abdomen?
Peptic ulcer perforation
What should be considered for the pathophysiology of acute abdomen?
What is the surface area of the peritoneum?
What activity is done by the peritoneum?
Fibrinolyric (blood clotting)
What are the 2 layers of the peritoneum?
Parietal and visceral
What is peritonitis?
Infections of the peritoneum
What are some routes of infection for peritonitis?
Perforation of GI/biliary tract
Female genital tract
Penetration of the abdominal wall
Are anaerobes or aerobes more likely to cause diffuse pritonitis?
Are anaerobes or aerobes more likely to cause abscess?
What are the 2 vague kinds of peritonitis?
Localsied or generalised
When does generalised peritonitis occur?
Contamination too rapid
What are cardinal features of intestine obstruction?
What do symptoms of obstruction depend on?
Site (proximal vs distal)
What abdominal pain, what must be asked?
Character of pain
Site of pain
Severity of pain
What receptors are responsible for visceral pain?
Pain receptors in smooth muscles
Where does afferent impulses of viseral pain run?
With sympathetic fibres accompanying segmental vessels
Is visceral pain well or poorly localised?
What receptors are responsible for somatic and reffered pain?
Receptors in parietal peritoneum or abdominal wall
What do afferent signals of somatic and referred pain travel with?
With segmental nerves
Is the localisation of somatic and refered pain good or bad?
What are the clinical consequences of peritonitis and intestinal obstruction?
Causes fluid loss and sepsis
Then circulatory collapse
What are the steps for managing acute abdomen?
1) Assess (and resuscitate if required)
What is required for the assessment of acute abdomen?
What investigations can be done for acute abdomen?
Ward tests (urine)
Lab tests (FBC, U&E, LFT)
Radiology (plain, US, axial CT)
Laparoscopy vs laparotomy
What steps are involved in resuscitation for acute abdomen?
Restore circulating fluid volume
Ensure tissue perfusion
Enhance tissue oxygenation
Ensure adequate pain relief
What is the treatment for acute abdomen?
Definitive interventions such as surgery