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Flashcards in Test 2 Deck (69)
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1

sagittal

divides from right to left

2

midsagittal

midline plane

3

medial

toward the midline

4

lateral

away from the midline

5

proximal

situated close to

6

distal

situated away from

7

dextral

right

8

sinistral

left

9

transverse

divides top from bottom (horizontal plane)

10

superior

up

11

inferior

down

12

rostral

toward the head

13

caudal

toward the tail

14

coronal

divides front and back

15

anterior

front

16

posterior

back

17

dorsal

towards the back

18

ventral

towards the belly

19

outer ear

collects sound and funnels it to the tympanic membrane (eardrum)

changes the spectral (frequency) characteristics of sound which aids in sound localization

20

middle ear

sound wave causes eardrum to vibrate, setting the bones in the middle ear into motion

21

inner ear (cochlea)

turns mechanical vibrations into neural signals

sorts sounds into different frequencies

neural signals are sent from auditory nerve to the brain

22

what does the temporal bone surround?

ear canal, middle ear, and inner ear

23

what are 4 distinct portions that make up the temporal bone?

1. squamous
2. petrous
3. mastoid
4. tympanic

24

squamous portion

thin and fan like

lateral aspect of the bone

lies anterior and superior to the ear canal

25

mastoid portion

posterior portion of the bone

lies posterior to the ear canal

contains air cells

extends posteriorly from petrous portion, below and behind the squamous and petrous portion and anterior to the mastoid portion

26

petrous portion

pyramid shaped

projects medially from the other 3 portions

only visible in medial view from inside the skull looking out

contains sensory organs of hearing and balance and the internal auditory canal

27

two main components of the outer ear?

Pinna (auricle)

External Auditory Canal (EAC)

28

Pinna

multiple ridges and valleys change the frequency characteristics of sound which helps us localize a sound source

29

External Auditory Canal (EAC)

S-like tube that ends at the ear drum

Lateral 1/3 of cartilage contains:
1. hairs
2. sebaceous (oil) glands: lubricates the ear canal
3. cerumenous (wax) glands: keeps away foreign bodies and insects

Medial 2/3 is bone derived from tympanic and squamous portions of the temporal bone

30

Middle ear components

tympanic membrane

3 ossicles (bones)

ligaments that suspend ossicles

muscles and tendons

eustachian tube