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Flashcards in Task 6 Deck (45)
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1

Are spouses similar in personality?

o Researcher compare scores of traits between the spouse
o Tend to be very slightly similar

2

Marital satisfaction (others)

Higher emotional stability, higher agreeableness and higher conscientiousness of the spouse are associated with marital satisfaction

3

Marital satisfaction (self)

people who reported higher marital satisfaction tended to be higher in Agreeableness, Emotional Stability, Conscientiousness, and Extraversion
 People with these traits are more likely to be happy in their marriage

4

similarity/dissimilarity (marital satisfaction)

: marital satisfaction is nearly unrelated to differences/similarities within a spouse

5

Influence of attachment style on personality

 Anxious attachment negatively correlated with emotional stability & conscientiousness
 Avoidant attachment weakly correlated to big 5

6

parenting style

 High in openness & extraversion = more nurturing, less restrictive parenting style

7

Are friends similar in personality

o For most aspects of personality, friends are neither similar nor different
o There is similarity between friends in Honesty-Humility and Openness to experience (about .25)
 These traits are also perceived to be more similar when you compare the other report for a friend else and an self-report for yourself (around .40)
 So the tend to perceive more similarity than actually exist
 Values: Might be caused by the fact that we tend to choose our friends based on same values (perceived similarity is higher than actual)

8

Popularity of children

 Popular children: tended to be low in aggression and high in sociability
 Rejected children: high in aggression low in sociability
 Neglected children: score low in both categories
 Controversial children: score high in aggression and sociability
 Aggression is linked to being disliked and sociability with being liked (not sure if likability is cause or effect for these characteristics)

9

Likability of college students

 Extraversion was associated with being liked (.40 among men and women)
 Only for men emotional and physical attractiveness are similar strong related for likability

10

Likability of colleges (work)

hypothesized, that consciousness might important for likability

11

Substance use and personality

o Substance use disorder: is related to low levels on conscientiousness and ,more weakly, with low levels of emotional stability
o Predictability of Substance misuse by personality: 17 year olds who stayed “clean” had higher levels of conscientiousness and emotional stability compared to those who developed a use disorder until the age of 20
 So personality traits can be predictive for drug misuse and not other way around
o Stopping drug misuse: people who stopped e.g. smoking have levels of conscientiousness somewhere between those who never started and those who still do it

12

Longevity and personality

o Conscientiousness: moderately related to longer lifespan, low level people had a 35% greater chance to die before the age of 70
 Part of it is caused by the lower likelihood of drinking and smoking, the rest is probably caused by better ability to handle life stress, being better prepared and development of better social support networks (in case of high level in conscientiousness)
o Other slightly related traits: cheerfulness and optimism with a negative correlation
 Might be caused by to much optimism about their heath and therefore neglection of any health problems that might arise

13

Heart disease and type A personality

o Type A behaviour pattern: characteristics including competitiveness, impatience, excessive job involvement, hostility and time urgency
 Most people have intermediate levels between type A and B
 Correlates to .20 with increased risk of heart disease
o Related to anger and hostility
 Might be caused by poorer health habits, more stress creation, or most likely stronger physiological reaction to stress (increase in blood pressure, heart rates and levels of stress related hormones)

14

Predictors for academic performance

o Conscientiousness was the strongest and most consistent predictor (only moderately high correlation)
o Elementary school: good performance was associated with Conscientiousness but also with Agreeableness, Emotional Stability, Extraversion, and Openness to Experience, with correlations in each case around .20. But only in elementary school

15

The role of self control in criminality

o Criminals lack on self-control, so they are less able to inhibit criminal impulses than non-criminals

16

Psychopathy

o Secondary psychopaths: those who lack on self-control
o Primary psychopaths: those wo act more calculating and rational (low in emotionality)
 Committing a crime relies on both secondary and primary psychopaths
o Score low in honesty-humility factor

17

general life satisfaction correlates

• Genetic influence (heritability around .40)
• Positive correlations: self esteem (.60) cheerfulness .40, assertiveness and sociability .30
• Negative correlations: depressiveness -.50, anxiety -.30 as well as anger
• Big Five: Extraversion and emotional stability are strongly associated with life satisfaction

18

Development of Honesty-Humility

o Decreases during teens and increases after late teens through late middle age
o Corresponds in the opposite direction to criminal behaviour (most prevalent in mid to late teens and then gets better)

19

Development of Emotionality

o Anxiety: tends to decrease substantially after young adulthood
o Sentimentality: tends to increase slightly

20

Development of Extraversion

o Social self-esteem and social boldness: tend to increase throughout adulthood
o Sociability: increases through teens and then decreases after the early 20s

21

Development of Agreeableness

o Generally small
o Small decrease during 20s and 30s and small increase in the 40s and later
o changes only statistically significant in old age

22

Development of conscientiousness

o Increases during the early 20s after that it depends which facet of conscientiousness is considered

23

Development of Openness

o Increase during teen years but then it depends on the particular facet again

24

Reasons for the change

o Social roles: people are expected to become more responsible as they get older, further more roles such as work, marriage, children people respond to all this by developing a more mature personality
o Biological maturation: genetically based changes in hormones, neurotransmitter and brain structures. Might be caused by natural selection
o Drug abuse
o Genes are more important in later life this leads to change in personality

25

Stability of personality

Stability declines only modestly (0.05 over 12 years) over life time
variability is slightly higher in college age

26

Mean level change

reflect changes of personality on a general population level

27

Individual differences in change/ rank order inconsistency

describe the change based on deviations of the level of individuals compared to the population mean

28

Mean level changes in personality

 Most mean level changes occurs between the ages of 20 and 40
 Personality traits continue to change, even in old age
 Humans are open systems: People retain the capacity to change at all ages
 Time has positive effects on personality change
• Longer period of time shows larger mean level changes
 Direction of change is clearly in the positive direction (not really applicable for all personality factors)
• With age people become more confident warm etc. (socially mature)

29

Reasons for change

life and work experiences are associated with changes in personality traits
• E.g. people who experience more successful and satisfying careers in young adulthood increase disproportionately on measures of emotional stability and conscientiousness (theft etc. can have opposite effects)

30

effectiveness of therapy on personality

• Emotional stability showed most changes after therapy, followed by extraversion moderate effects for the other Big five factors
• Patients presenting anxiety disorders changed the most, patients treated for substance use changed the least
• Most gains were made within the first months of therapy, so personality can change fast