Section 1 - The Language of Reasoning Flashcards Preview

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What is evidence?

Results, statistics and quotes that support one of the argument’s reasons.


What is the purpose of evidence?

• Support one of the argument’s reasons
• Make the reasons more convincing


Name the argument element in asterisk:

“You should eat more vegetables because they’re good for you. *Courgettes help prevent heart disease and carrots fight against premature ageing*.”



Name the argument element in asterisk:

“It’s important for young children to have a male role model. *Research has revealed that 44% of people felt that having a male primary school teacher helped build their confidence.* Therefore we should encourage male graduates to become teachers.”



How does evidence in the form of research help an argument?

It proves that one of the reasons is true.


What are the different categories of research?

• Personal observation
• Statement (from a source or witness)
• Estimates
• Data from a survey


Name the type of evidence:

“Professor Grayling, Head of Child Development Studies at Canford University, argues recently that ‘when exposed to certain types of media, children’s moral values are more likely to shift from kindness and creativity towards materialism and vanity’.”

Statement from a source or witness


Name the type of evidence:

“I see more and more young girls performing provocative dance routines in the playground. They’re clearly influenced by today’s controversial artists.”

Personal observation


Name the type of evidence:

“Recent estimates, based on trends in GCSE and A-Level choices, predict that by 2035 the number of out-of-work actor-wannabes will outnumber useful society members by 7 to 1.”



Name the type of evidence:

“In a survey of 360 children between the ages of 6 and 8, 15 wanted to be firefighters, 193 wanted to be singers, 130 wanted to be actors, 12 wanted to be nurses, 8 wanted to be explorers and 2 wanted to be clowns.”

Data from a survey


What are statistics?

When numbers are turned into percentages, proportions, graphs or charts to make them easier to understand.


Why are statistics used?

They are easier to understand than long lists of numbers.


Statistics are a type of...



Turn this into a statistic:

“In a survey of 2000 households, 1384 used their kettle three times a day, and 416 used it more than 6 times daily.”

More than two thirds of households use their kettle three times a day. About one in five use it more than 6 times daily.


What is an example?

An description of a situation where a reason is true, used to support it.


What are examples used for?

Supporting reasons by illustrating a situation where they are true.


Name the argument element in asterisk:

“Auntie Ethel is finding it hard to move around her house. *Last week, she couldn’t manage the stairs and had to sleep in the sitting room.* She should move into sheltered accommodation.”



Do examples support a conclusion?

No, they are too specific to effectively support a broad conclusion.


Do examples only support reasons?

No, they can also illustrate evidence.


Name each argument element:

• Exercise is a very effective way to cope with arthritic pain.
• Studies show that a 20% increase in physical activity can improve joint flexibility by more than 40%.
• My Auntie Liz does yoga every day, and her arthritis never bothers her.
• The NHS should provide classes and schemes encouraging exercise for arthritis sufferers.

• Reason
• Evidence
• Example
• Conclusion


What is the common notation for evidence?



What is the common notation for an example?



Are examples and evidence as important as reasons and the conclusion? Why?

• No, because they are not essential to the argument’s structure.
• The argument would still work without them.


What does evaluating evidence mean?

Deciding if the evidence is useful and whether it gives support to the argument.


How do questions about evaluating evidence usually start?



What are the most common types of evaluating evidence questions?

Explain how evidence:
• Gives support to an argument.
• Gives limited support to an argument.


What factors must be considered when looking at evidence?

• Reasonable proportion of population surveyed
• Representative
• Statistics interpreted in different ways
• Relevant
• Evidence interpreted in different ways


What is a sample?

Part of a population that is surveyed in a survey.


What is over-generalisation in surveys?

When a sample used to support statements about a large population is too small -> Less reliable evidence.


When evaluating evidence, why must you consider the proportion of a population surveyed?

If the sample size is relatively small compared to the population that the argument refers to, then the evidence cannot be considered reliable.