What tumor marker would you order on a patient if you suspect an endodermal sinus (yolk sac) tumor?
What is the most common type of germ cell tumor in women?
Teratoma (more than 90% of tumors); mature teratomas are the most common benign ovarian tumors in women
Is there a difference in the prognosis of a patient with an immature teratoma compared to a mature teratoma?
Yes; immature teratomas are malignant whereas mature teratomas or dermoid cysts are benign
What kind of tumor contains cells from two or three germ cell layers?
A woman presents with palpitations, sweating, weight loss, and a low thyroid-stimulating hormone level; what ovarian pathology could be responsible?
Struma ovarii, in which functional thyroid tissue within a teratoma can cause symptoms of hyperthyroidism
Which benign non-germ cell ovarian tumor is frequently bilateral and has a fallopian tube-like epithelium?
Serous cystadenoma, which compose 20% of non-germ cell tumors
Which malignant non-germ cell tumor represents 50% of ovarian tumors and is frequently bilateral?
Which benign non-germ cell tumor has multilocular cysts lined with mucus-secreting epithelium?
Mucinous cystadenoma; this can often look like intestinal tissue
Which malignant ovarian non-germ cell tumor can progress to pseudomyxoma peritonei?
What is pseudomyxoma peritonei?
An intraperitoneal accumulation of mucinous material from an ovarian or appendiceal tumor
Which benign ovarian non-germ cell tumor resembles bladder epithelium?
Brenner tumor (remember: Brenner is Benign and looks like Bladder)
Which benign ovarian non-germ cell tumor contains bundles of spindle-shaped fibroblasts and can cause Meigs' syndrome?
What triad is associated with Meigs' syndrome?
Ovarian fibroma, ascites, and hydrothorax
A patient with an ovarian non-germ cell tumor has small follicles filled with eosinophilic secretions on histopathology. What are these called and what tumor do they signify?
Call-Exner bodies, indicative of granulosa cell tumors
How can the presentation of a granulosa cell tumor differ based on age?
Granulosa cell tumors secrete estrogen; in childhood, this can result in precocious puberty, whereas adults may see abnormal uterine bleeding, endometrial hyperplasia, or carcinoma
What is the most important risk factor for ovarian cancer?
Family history, since there is a strong genetic component to development of the disease
What histologic appearance is seen in a Krukenberg tumor of the ovary?
Signet cell adenocarcinoma, which produces mucin
Krukenberg tumor is an ovarian tumor that has its origin in what organ system?
Gastrointestinal system, usually as gastric cancer
What serum marker would you follow in a patient with any form of ovarian cancer?
CA-125 is a general marker for ovarian cancer
Name two genetic risk factors for developing ovarian tumors with a non-germ cell origin.
Being positive for BRCA-1 mutation or HNPCC (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer) genes
What vaginal cancer develops secondary to cervical carcinoma?
Vaginal squamous cell carcinoma develops from cervical squamous cell carcinoma
Diethylstilbestrol exposure can lead to what type of vaginal carcinoma?
A girl younger than 4 years of age has a vaginal mass that shows spindle-shaped tumor cells positive for desmin staining; what is the diagnosis?
Sarcoma botryoides; a variant of rhabdomyosarcoma
A sexually active female presents with vaginal pain, and on exam you note a tender mass in the labia majora; this is suspicious for what disorder?
Bartholin's gland cyst, a rare lesion that may be a result of a prior infection
Sarcoma botryoides is a variant of what type of malignancy?
What is the most common breast tumor among women younger than 25 years of age?
Fibroadenoma, a benign tumor
A 20-year-old woman has a small, mobile, firm breast mass with well-defined borders; what is the most likely etiology?
Fibroadenoma, the most common tumor in women younger than 25 years of age
A 24-year-old woman notes a breast mass that becomes more tender during menstruation and asks you if this means she has breast cancer; what is your reply?
The age and description of the breast tenderness are consistent with a fibroadenoma, which is a benign breast mass
What neoplasm would be likely in a woman with serosanguinous discharge from her nipple but without a palpable breast mass?
Intraductal papilloma, which grows in the lactiferous ducts, often below the areola
What is the relationship between an intraductal papilloma and the development of breast cancer?
There is a small increase in the risk of carcinoma (1.5-2 times increased risk)