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Flashcards in Renal - Pathology Deck (154)
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1

_____ (Red blood cells/White blood cells) are seen in the urine of patients with bladder cancer; also significant is the _____ (presence/absence) of casts.

Red blood cells; absence

2

Name three diseases in which red blood cell casts are seen on urinalysis.

Glomerulonephritis, renal ischemia, or malignant hypertension

3

Name three diseases in which white blood cell casts are seen on urinalysis.

Tubulointerstitial disease, acute pyelonephritis, or transplant rejection

4

What types of casts would be seen in the urine of a patient with advanced renal disease or chronic renal failure?

Waxy casts

5

In patients with acute cystitis, _____ (red blood cells/white blood cells) are found in the urine, as are the _____ (presence/absence) of casts.

White blood cells; absence

6

The presence of casts in the urine indicates disease of which organ?

The kidneys; as opposed to the bladder or lower urinary tract

7

What types of casts would be seen in the urine of a patient with acute tubular necrosis?

Granular ("muddy brown") casts

8

Name five primary glomerular causes of nephrotic syndrome.

Minimal change disease, membranous glomerulonephritis, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis

9

Name three secondary causes of nephrotic syndrome.

Diabetic nephropathy, amyloidosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus

10

Name seven causes of nephritic syndrome.

Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (Berger's disease), poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura - hemolytic uremic syndrome, Alport's syndrome, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, and Henoch-Schönlein purpura

11

Name three categories of etiologies for rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis.

Antiglomerular basement membrane antibodies, immune-complex mediated glomerulonephritis, and pauci-immune glomerulonephritis

12

Which four diseases can cause immune-complex mediated rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis?

Henoch-Schönlein purpura, hypersensitivity vasculitis, cryoglobulinemia, and systemic lupus erythematosus

13

Which four diseases can cause pauci-immune rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis?

Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyarteritis, Churg-Strauss syndrome, and polyarteritis nodosa

14

What is the pattern of immunofluorescence in acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis?

Granular

15

Which cause of nephritic syndrome is characterized by mesangial deposits of immunoglobulin A seen on immunofluorescence and electron microscopy?

Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (Berger's disease)

16

What cause of nephritic syndrome is characterized pathologically by a linear staining pattern with anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies on immunofluorescence?

Goodpasture's syndrome

17

What type of hypersensitivity reaction is Goodpasture's syndrome?

Type II hypersensitivity

18

Which cause of nephritic syndrome is characterized pathologically by crescent-moon-shaped deposits in the urinary space seen by light microscopy and immunofluorescence?

Rapidly progressive (crescentic) glomerulonephritis

19

What are the major symptoms of Goodpasture's syndrome?

Hemoptysis and hematuria

20

A genetic mutation in which protein results in Alport's syndrome?

Collagen IV mutation

21

What glomerular pathology is associated with mild renal disease that often follows an upper respiratory infection or gastroenteritis in adults?

Immunoglobulin A glomerulopathy (Berger's disease)

22

What cause of nephritic syndrome is characterized on histopathology by a basement membrane that appears to be split?

Alport's syndrome

23

A 10-year-old boy presents with swollen ankles and periorbital edema, which were beginning to resolve without intervention. On electron microscopy, a kidney biopsy is found to have subepithelial immune complex humps. What form of nephritic syndrome does he have?

Acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis

24

Wegener's granulomatosis is _____ (c-ANCA/p-ANCA) positive, while microscopic polyarteritis is _______ (c-ANCA/p-ANCA) positive.

c-ANCA; p-ANCA

25

Name three disease processes that result in rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis.

Goodpasture's syndrome, Wegener's granulomatosis, and microscopic polyarteritis

26

Which two ANCA-positive vasculitides can result in rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis?

Wegener's granulomatosis and microscopic polyarteritis

27

Which condition is associated with nerve disorders, ocular disorders, and deafness?

Alport's syndrome; symptoms are due to a mutation in type IV collagen

28

What do the crescent deposits in "crescentic" glomerulonephritis consist of?

Fibrin and plasma proteins with glomerular parietal cells, monocytes, and macrophages

29

Which cause of nephritic syndrome is characterized pathologically by enlarged hypercellular glomeruli, the presence of neutrophils, and a "lumpy-bumpy" appearance on light microscopy?

Acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis

30

What is the underlying mechanism resulting in diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis due to systemic lupus erythematosus?

Subendothelial anti-DNA immune complex deposition