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Flashcards in public health 2 Deck (29)
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1

Life expectancy

78.8

2

Infant mortality rates

5.82 deaths per 1000 live births

3

Leading Causes of Death US 2016

1Heart disease
2Cancer
3Chronic lower respiratory diseases
4Accidents (unintentional injuries)
5Stroke (cerebrovascular diseases)
6Alzheimer’s disease
7Diabetes
8Influenza and pneumonia
9Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and nephrosis
10 Intentional self-harm (suicide)

4

Leading causes of infant death

-Congenital malformations, deformations, and chromosomal abnormalities
-Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight: not elsewhere classified
-Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy

5

Leading causes of death 1-4 years

-Accidents (unintentional injuries)
-Congenital malformations, deformations, and chromosomal abnormalities
-Assault (homicide)

6

Leading causes of death, 5-14

-Accidents (unintentional injuries)
-Cancer
-Intentional self-harm (suicide)

7

What percentage of kids 6-11 are obese?

17.4

8

Leading causes of death, adolescents 15-19 y/o

Accidents (unintentional injuries)
Suicide
Homicide

9

what percentage of adolescents 12-19 are obese?

20.6%

10

12-7 year olds who used alcohol or cigarretes in past month

cig: 4.2%
Alcohol: 9.6%

11

Leading cause of death 65+

Heart disease
Cancer
Chronic lower respiratory disease

12

highest obesity rates

women 65-74
followed by men in same age group

13

Hypertenstion most common in

women 75+

14

Leading causes of death, American Indian or Alaska Native (U.S., 2014)

Heart disease
Cancer
Accidents (unintentional injuries)

15

Leading causes of death, Asian or Pacific Islander (U.S., 2014)

Cancer
Heart disease
Stroke
men have higher rates of smoking

16

Leading causes of death, Black or African American non-Hispanic (U.S., 2014)

Heart disease
Cancer
Stroke
women more obese
men smoke more
women more HTN

17

Leading causes of death, Hispanic or Latino (U.S., 2014)

Cancer
Heart disease
Accidents (unintentional injuries)
smoking more common in men
obesity in women
HTN same among sexes
21% w/o health insurance

18

Leading causes of death, White, non-Hispanic (U.S., 2014)

Heart disease
Cancer
Chronic lower respiratory disease
men and women about same smoking as well as obesity and HTN

19

Leading causes of death, Men (U.S., 2014)

Heart disease
Cancer
Accidents (unintentional injuries)

20

Leading causes of death, Women (U.S., 2014)

Heart disease
Cancer
Chronic lower respiratory disease

21

Goals of preventative medicine

Protect health & well-being
Promote health & well-being
Maintain health & well-being
Prevent disease
Prevent disability
Prevent death

22

Health factors – Biologic factors

Genetics/heredity
Likelihood of developing certain illnesses
Sex/gender
Types of diseases and ages affected
Immunologic factors
Use of services that prevent and treat disease

23

Barriers to healthcare

financial burden
Lack of access to quality health care
Unaware of or doubt benefits
Discomfort
May not want to change
Social or cultural factors

24

Healthcare system barriers

Reimbursement
Patients with multiple physicians
Inadequate communication between EMRs
Screening programs (health fairs)
Conflicting recommendations
Uncertain value of tests or interventions
Incomplete medical documentation
Time
Attitudes toward prevention

25

Prevention

-Primary: preventions of disease from occurring: vaccines
-Secondary: screening services
-Tertiary: already have disease but want to make sure we prevent complications from happening

26

Components of wellness exam

Screening
Immunizations
Behavioral Counseling
Chemoprevention

27

Adult vaccine recommendations

Flu, HPV and Tdap for everyone!
Shingles, MMR, chickenpox should not be given to pregnant women or people wit weakened immune systems

28

Children vaccine recommendations

Hep B given at 1 month all other vaccines started at 2 months.
flu started at 6
HEP A and Varicella t one year

29

steps to change

1.precontemplation: patient not ready to talk about
2. contemplation: thinking about taking steps to quitting
3. preparation: start decreasing cigarettes
4. action: quitting
5. maintenance: able to hold it long term
6. termination: fall back into smoking