Pathology of Colon Flashcards Preview

07. Year 2: Alimentary System > Pathology of Colon > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathology of Colon Deck (109)
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1

What is the function of the small bowel?

Absorptive role

2

What are the functions of the large bowel?

Absorptive and secretory role

3

How long is the small bowel?

Approximately 6m long

4

How long is the duodenum?

25cm

5

What are the 3 parts of the small bowel?

Duodenum

Jejunum

Ileum

6

What are the different parts of the large bowel?

Caecum

Ascending colon

Transverse colon

Descending colon

Sigmoid colon

Rectum

7

How long is the rectum?

15cm

8

What are the different layers of the small bowel wall?

Mucosa

Submucosa

Muscularis propria

Subserosa

9

What are the layers of the mucosa in small bowel?

Epithelium

Lamina propria

Muscularis mucosa

10

What cell types are in the mucosa of the small bowel?

Goblet cells

Columnar absorptive cells

Endocrine cells

11

What is embedded within the mucosa of the small bowel?

Crypts that contain stem, goblet, endocrine and paneth cells

12

What are the projections from the epithelium of the small bowel?

Villi

13

What is the muscularis propria also known as?

Muscularis externa

14

How often is the wall of the small bowel renewed?

Every 4 to 6 days

15

What is different about the villi of the small bowel and the large bowel?

The large bowel does not contain any villi

16

What shape is the top of cells in the large bowel?

Flat, no villi

17

What shape are crypts in the large bowel?

Tubular

18

What is the difference between crypts in the small intestine and large intestine?

Crypts in the large intestine do not contain paneth cells

19

What is a consequence of the GI tract having a large surface area?

Large exposure to environment antigens so immune system must balance harmless ingested substances against active defect reactions to potential microbial invaders

20

What does dysfunction of the intestinal immune system cause?

Chronic disease

Life threatening acute conditions

21

What is small and large bowel peristalsis mediated by?

Intrinsic (myenteric) plexus and extrinsic (autonomic innervation) neural control

22

What is the myenteric plexus formed from?

Meissener's plexus (base of submucosa)

Auerbach plexus (between the inner circular and outer longitudinal layers of the muscularis propria)

23

Where is the Meissener's plexus found?

Base of submucosa

24

Where is the Auerback plexus?

Between the inner circular and outer longitudinal layers of the muscularis propria

25

What are examples of pathologies of the lower GI tract?

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBS)

Large bowel neoplasia

26

What does IBD stand for?

Inflammatory bowel disease

27

What is inflammatory bowel diseases the pathological feature of?

Ulcerative colitis

Crohn's disease

Ischaemic colitis

Radiation colitis

Appendicities

28

What is idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease?

Chronic inflammatory condition resulting from inappropriate and persistent activation of the mucosal immune system driven by the presence of normal intraluminal flora

29

What are the 2 main diseases of inflammatory bowel disease?

Crohn's disease

Ulcerative colitis

30

What is the difference in where Crohn's and ulcerative colitis can affect the GI tract?

Crohn's can affect ny part of the GIT from mouth to the anus

Ulcerative colitis is limited to the colon