Part 1: Genetics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Part 1: Genetics Deck (57)
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1

According to Darwin (1859), evolutionary change occurs as h______ traits of s________ individuals are spread throughout the population, whereas, the traits of l___ s________ individuals are lost.

According to Darwin (1859), evolutionary change occurs as heritable traits of successful individuals are spread throughout the population, whereas, the traits of less successful individuals are lost.

2

The human brain accounts for __% of our total body weight. While the elephant brain accounts for only __% of its body weight.

The human brain accounts for 2.3% of our total body weight. While the elephant brain accounts for only 0.2% of its body weight.

3

How much does the average newborn brain weigh?

350g

4

How many neurons does the typical newborn brain have?

100 billion.

5

In newborns, production of neurons almost ceases, except in the:
a.
b.

a. hippocampus
b. olfactory bulb

6

When does the human brain reach its adult size?

Adolescence.

7

How much does the typical adult brain weigh?

1,400g

8

How many times bigger is an adult brain in comparison to a newborns?

Adult brains are 4X bigger than newborns.

9

What Southern ape species played a significant role in human evolution?

Australopithecus.

10

What genus evolved from Australopithecus and when?

Homo, 3 million years ago.

11

What was the name of the first hominid?

Homo-erectus.

12

When did the first hominid leave Africa?

1.7 million years ago.

13

What is the name of our own species?

Homo-sapiens.

14

Where and when did the first homo-sapiens appear?

East Africa, 100,000 yrs ago.

15

Mendel's Theory: first pairing

[B1 B2] + [w1 w2] =

1.
2.
3.
4.

Mendel's Theory: first pairing

[B1 B2] + [w1 w2] =

1. [B1 w1]
2. [B1 w2]
3. [B2 w1]
4. [B2 w2]

16

Mendel's Theory: second pairing

[B1 w1] + [B2 w2] =

1.
2.
3.
4.

Mendel's Theory: second pairing

[B1 w1] + [B2 w2] =

1. [B1 B2]
2. [B1 w2]
3. [w1 B2]
4. [w1 w2]

17

What do we call an individual who has two of the same allele?

E.g. BB or bb

Homozygous.

18

What do we call an individual who has two different alleles?

E.g. Bb or bB

Heterozygous.

19

What do we call an individuals makeup of alleles?

Genotype.

20

The observable traits resulting from a combination of alleles is called an individuals:

Phenotype.

21

What type of cell division is used to make sperm cells?

Meiotic.

22

How many pairs of chromosomes does a fathers body cells contain?

23 pairs.

23

Describe the first stage of meiotic cell division used to create sperm cells.

1.

1. Within the father's body cells, the chromosomes duplicate themselves.

24

Describe the second stage of meiotic cell division used to create sperm cells.

1. Within the father's body cells, the chromosomes duplicate themselves.

2.

1. Within the father's body cells, the chromosomes duplicate themselves.

2. The fathers body cells split to form two new complete cells, each containing 23 pairs of chromosomes.

25

Describe the third stage of meiotic cell division used to create sperm cells.

1. Within the father's body cells, the chromosomes duplicate themselves.

2. The fathers body cells split to form two new complete cells, each containing 23 pairs of chromosomes.

3.

1. Within the father's body cells, the chromosomes duplicate themselves.

2. The fathers body cell splits to form two new cells, each containing 23 chromosomes.

3. Each cell divides to create 4 sperm cells, containing half the normal amount of genetic material.

26

How many chromosomes do sperm cells contain?

23

27

How many pairs of chromosomes does the mothers body cells contain?

23 pairs.

28

What type of cell division is used to make egg cells?

Meiotic.

29

Describe the first stage of meiotic cell division used to create egg cells:

1.

Describe the first stage of meiotic cell division used to create egg cells:

1. Within the mothers body cells, the chromosomes duplicate themselves.

30

Describe the second stage of meiotic cell division used to create egg cells:

1. Within the mothers body cells, the chromosomes duplicate themselves.

2.

Describe the second stage of meiotic cell division used to create egg cells:

1. Within the mothers body cells, the chromosomes duplicate themselves.

2. The mothers body cell splits to form new cells, each containing 23 chromosomes.