A patient presents after falling from a window on the fourth floor of a building. Computed tomography shows a biconvex disk that do not cross suture lines. What type of intracranial hemorrhage does this patient have?
What type of cerebral hematoma is associated with diabetes mellitus, amyloid angiopathy, and tumor?
Calcium channel blockers are used to prevent which sequela of subarachnoid hemorrhage?
A xanthochromic spinal tap is evidence of what?
On computed tomography, what type of intracranial hematoma appears as a crescent-shaped hemorrhage that crosses suture lines?
Where in the brain do parenchymal hematomas commonly occur?
Basal ganglia and internal capsule
Stroke appears _____ (bright/dark) on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scan 3-30 minutes after occurrence and _____ (bright/dark) on computed tomography after 24 hours.
Stroke is bright on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and dark on computed tomography
What are lacunar strokes?
Strokes that involve small vessels and are due to hypertension
What are two common causes of hemorrhagic stroke?
Aneurysm rupture or reperfusion of an ischemic stroke
What is the treatment for ischemic stroke?
Tissue plasminogen activator (must be administered within 3 hours)
Name four conditions that result in increased risk of ischemic stroke.
Atrial fibrillation, carotid dissection, patent foramen ovale, and endocarditis
What is a TIA?
Transient ischemic attack, a brief, reversible episode of neurologic dysfunction due to focal ischemia
Which dural venous sinuses meet at the confluence of the sinuses?
Superior sagittal sinus, straight sinus, occipital sinus
All cranial venous sinuses ultimately drain into the vein that courses through the jugular foramen, which is called what?
The internal jugular vein
What is the main location of cerebrospinal fluid return to the venous circulation via arachnoid granulations?
The superior sagittal sinus
The lateral ventricles communicate with the third ventricle via what structures?
The foramina of Monro (interventricular foramina)
The third ventricle communicates with the fourth ventricle via what structure?
The aqueduct of Sylvius (the cerebral aqueduct)
The fourth ventricle communicates with the subarachnoid space via what structures laterally and medially?
The foramina of Luschka laterally and the foramen of Magendie medially
Cerebrospinal fluid is produced by _____ _____ (tissue) and reabsorbed by _____ _____ (structure).
Choroid plexus; arachnoid granulations
What condition can be caused by impaired flow or reabsorption of cerebrospinal fluid?
What are the four types of hydrocephalus?
Normal pressure, communicating, obstructive (noncommunicating), hydrocephalus ex vacuo
What is the classic triad of symptoms in normal-pressure hydrocephalus?
Dementia, gait problems, and urinary incontinence in an elderly patient
What is the cause of communicating hydrocephalus?
Impaired absorption of cerebrospinal fluid by arachnoid granulations
In normal pressure hydrocephalus, ventricles are _____ (enlarged/normal size/small) and opening pressure is ______ (low/normal/high).
What is the cause of obstructive hydrocephalus?
Structural blockage of cerebrospinal fluid circulation within the ventricular system
What type of hydrocephalus is caused by stenosis of the aqueduct of Sylvius (cerebral aqueduct)?
What is hydrocephalus ex vacuo? How does it affect intracranial pressure?
Appearance of increased cerebrospinal fluid secondary to brain atrophy; intracranial pressure is normal
What is the most common location for a vertebral disk herniation (between which two spinous processes)?
Between L5 and S1
How many cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal spinal nerves are there (each and total)?
Eight cervical, 12 thoracic, five lumbar, five sacral, one coccygeal; total = 31
Which nerves exit intervertebral foramina above the corresponding vertebrae?