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Flashcards in Lifespan Deck (170)
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61

Language development

Cooing 1 syllable (B - 6/8 weeks)
Babbling (4m) intentional vocalization that lacks meaning and comprised of consonant, vowel, sounds and repeated sequence (9m - 14 m; narrow sounds down to native language)
First word (10m to 15m)
Holophrasic (1-2y). one word expression, gesture, and intonations.
Telegraphic (18 - 24m) string of two words to make a sentence, dog go
vocab growth (18 m)
Grammatically Correct Sentences (2 to 5)
Metalinguaistic ( reflect on language) 6 to 7 y

62

Patterson - coercive family interaction model

coercive exchanges between between parents and child- both act out aggressively to alter each other's behaviors. imitated by modeling and reinforcement
Aggressive interaction increase intensity

63

Assimilation and accommodation

egocentric and environmental-organism constantly reshapes its self
adaptation-consists in an equilibrium between accommodation of schemata behavior of things and assimilation of things to the schemata of behavior -driving force to constantly apply it's schemata to new objects and constantly improve it's schemata -identity; drive to ideal equilibrium -entire development is striving

64

Werner: factors that contribute to resiliency in high risk infants.

fewer stressors following birth
stable support from parent or other caregiver
easy temperament

65

What is habituation?

This occurs when a reinforcer loses its reinforcing value because the individual has received too much reinforcement?

In the context of punishment, ________ occurs when an individual's response to a neutral (innocuous) stimulus increases after the individual has been exposed to a punishing (aversive) stimulus.

In operant conditioning,_______ occurs when a previously reinforced response is no longer reinforced and, as a result, the response decreases or no longer occurs.

habituation which, in the context of punishment, occurs when the punisher loses its effectiveness. Gradually increasing the intensity of a punishment over time is usually ineffective because it leads to habituation.

Satiation

In the context of punishment, sensitization

extinction

66

Premature, small for Gestational Age Infants

Born less than 37 wks 3.3 lbs can survive.
can catch up with right environment
if weight below 10th percentile for gastro age then infant is small for gatro age -asphyxia, respiratory disease, hypoglycemia, LD and ADHS

67

Emotions

Basic emotions: interest, happiness, anger, surprise, sadness, and disgust
Self-Conscious emotions, envy, pride, shame, guilt, doubt and embarrassment -developing self concept and social instruction/varies from culture to culture

68

Alterations in Chromosome Structure

Deletion: part is missing Prader-Willis Syndrome-intellect Disability, obesity, OCD)
Translocation: transfer segment to another chromosome
Inversion: chromosome breaks and reattaches upside down

69

Genetic Disorders

Recessive Disorders (Homozygous): The individual inherits a gene change from both
parents. If the gene is inherited from just one parent, the person is a carrier and does
not have the condition.
Cases per Birth
• Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a condition in which the red blood cells in the body
are shaped like a sickle (like the letter C) and affect the ability of the blood to
transport oxygen. Carriers may experience some effects, but do not have the full
condition.
1 in 500 Black births
1 in 36,000 Hispanic
births
• Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a condition that affects breathing and digestion due to
thick mucus building up in the body, especially the lungs and digestive system. In
CF, the mucus is thicker than normal and sticky.
1 in 3500
• Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a metabolic disorder in which the individual cannot
metabolize phenylalanine, an amino acid. Left untreated intellectual deficits
occur. PKU is easily detected and is treated with a special diet.
1 in 10,000
• Tay Sachs Disease is caused by enzyme deficiency resulting in the accumulation
of lipids in the nerve cells of the brain. This accumulation results in progressive
damage to the cells and a decrease in cognitive and physical development. Death
typically occurs by age five.
1 in 4000
1in 30 American
Jews is a carrier
1 in 20 French
Canadians is a carrier
• Albinism is when the individual lacks melanin and possesses little to no pigment
in the skin, hair, and eyes. Vision problems can also occur.
Fewer than 20,000
US cases per year
Autosomal Dominant Disorders (Heterozygous): In order to have the disorder, the
individual only needs to inherit the gene change from one parent.
Cases per Birth
• Huntington’s Disease is a condition that affects the individual’s nervous system.
Nerve cells become damaged, causing various parts of the brain to deteriorate. The
disease affects movement, behavior and cognition. It is fatal, and occurs at
midlife.
1 in 10,000
• Tourette Syndrome is a tic disorder which results in uncontrollable motor and
vocal tics as well as body jerking.
1 in 250
• Achondroplasia is the most common form of disproportionate short stature. The
individual has abnormal bone growth resulting in short stature, disproportionately
short arms and legs, short fingers, a large head, and specific facial features.
1 in 15,000-40,000
Sex-Linked Disorders: When the X chromosome carries the mutated gene, the
disorder is referred to as an X-linked disorder. Males are more affected than females
because they possess only one X chromosome without an additional X chromosome to
counter the harmful gene.
Cases per Birth
• Fragile X Syndrome occurs when the body cannot make enough of a protein it
needs for the brain to grow and problems with learning and behavior can
occur. Fragile X syndrome is caused from an abnormality in the X chromosome,
which then breaks. If a female has fragile X, her second X chromosome usually is
healthy, but males with fragile X don’t have a second healthy X chromosome.
This is why symptoms of fragile X syndrome usually are more serious in males.
1 in 4000 males
1 in 8000 females
• Hemophilia occurs when there are problems in blood clotting causing both
internal and external bleeding.
1 in 10,000 males
• Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is a weakening of the muscles resulting in an
inability to move, wasting away, and possible death.
1 in 3500 males

70

Empathy in Childhood and Adolescence

females of all ages- higher levels of empathy(affective empathy) but gender gap decreases with exposure to empathy modeling/training- both genders benefit

71

Adolescent Identity Crisis

Identity Diffusion: not yet expereinced an identity crisis
Identity Foreclosure: Take on Occupation of Same sex parent
Identity Moratorium: Crisis and active explores other identities. -confusion discontent, rebelliousness
Identity Achievement:

72

Birth Defects

chromosomal (autosomes 22/23 sex pairs)
Disorder Dominant/Recessive: Phenylketonuria (PKU) : PKU autosomal recessive disorder-inherited one recessive allele (p) from each parent. A parent w homozygous has two recessive alleles (pp) while a person with heterozygous with regard to PKU when 2 different alleles (Pp) where P is normal: 2 parents are heterozygous for PKU (Pp) 25% of their offspring will not have the disorder (PP) and not carry, %50 (Pp) and 25% (pp) if one parent (Pp) and other (PP) %50 (Pp) and 50% (pp) ,Tay-Sack disease, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell
Chromosomal: Downs (21)
Kinefelter ( XX and Y): affects males, low testosterone, infertility, breasts, reduce body and facial hair
Turner (X)

73

Children's understanding of death

nonfunctionally
irreversibility
Universality
2 - 5 view death as reversible, temporary, abandonment
5 to 9 they can cheat death, irreversible
10 loss of functioning, irreversible and universal

74

mechanisms children use to facilitate language acquisition

bootstrapping mechanism are considered as a linkage between properties of the specific language the child is exposed to and pre-existing linguistic knowledge provided by universal grammar.
Semantic Bootstrapping: use knowledge of the meaning of the word to infer their syntactical grammar (rules)
Syntactic Bootstrapping: use of syntactical knowledge to infer the meaning of the word (narrow the possible meaning of the word)

75

Substages of Sensory Motor

Reflexive Schemes, Primary Circular Reactions (self sustaining sequence of action) Secondary Circular React. (no longer body, repeat a phenomenon that was discovered by accident) Coordinated Secondary Circular React. (8m-12m: more complex, intentional actions, schema is applied), Tertiary Circular Reactions (12m-18m; Changes actions to see what happens/ Scientist) Mental Representation (18-24m: internal motor activities motor imitation schema, actions do not have to be carried out physically but can be visualized; no insight-imitating not constructing; figurations)--object permanence

76

Auditory

oriented to sound comes and goes
3 mos. differentiate sound-prefers mom's voice
after birth distinguish vowel a and i, 2 to 3 similar consonants
taste hours after birth

77

Preoperational Stage

(2-7 years): practical schema is expanded and partially replaced with image representation, reflect upon own image/action. images receive verbal meaning- recall actions and anticipate future, imitation-development into fantasy games, -magical thinking, animism.
-pre casual (transductive) reasoning, reflects on incomplete understanding of cause and effect: to see a casual relationship when one does not exist)

78

There is physiological and behavioral evidence that the neural mechanisms required for long-term memory recall undergo significant development during the ______ of life.

Second half of the first year.
, 75% of infants 6, 9, or 11 months of age imitated at least one action

79

Erickson's Theory of Psychosocial Development

Social experience over a lifetime and focus on ego than id. 8 -stages
Basic trust vs mistrust (infancy) trust and optimism
Autonomy vs Shame (Toddlerhood)
Initiative Vs Guilt (school age) purpose
Industry vs Inferiority (School age) competence
Identity vs role confusion (teen) fidelity
Intimacy Vs Isolation (adulthood) have or not have a relationships-love
Generativity vs Stagnation (middle Adulthood) capacity to care and be involved in the world in a certain way
Ego Integrity vs Despair ( Maturation/old age ) Wisdom

80

Emotional development

Birth/ 3 to 4 months infants can express at least 4 emotions through their facial expressions- interest, sadness, distress and disgust --Anger joy, surprise and fear at 6 to 8 months.
Jealousy, embarrassment and other self conscious emotions occur between the ages of 12 to 18Mo. which aligns with the ages that a sense of self emerges (18 to 24)
By 24 m. jealousy, embarrassment, and empathy
then shame, guilt, and pride (30 to 36)

81

According to Bowlby, as the result of early attachment experiences, children develop an internal (mental) working model of relationships, which influences their future relationships. "internal working model" derives from:

early interpersonal interaction patterns

82

Gilligian's Model

Moral Development of Females
Caring, Compassion and responsibility to others.
Level 1- orientation to individual survival
Transition 1 from selfishness to responsibility,
Level 2 goodness as self sacrifice
Transition 2 From goodness to Truth
Level 3 Morality of non violence
Adolescence is critical period for girls, relational crisis-psychological separation from themselves, others and the world as a result of external pressures -resist disconnection

83

Vygotsky

Scoio Cultural- culture and interaction of cognitive abilities. Set of potential can be realized with proper guidance. cognitive-interpersonal (interaction with others) intrapersonal (internalizes what what they learned from others)
Zone of proximal development: (where that can almost perform a task but not without assistance. A type of support that is supplied by an adult who is more cognitive mature and allows the child to accomplish a task with assistance that she will eventually be able to preform independently-providers of support (scaffolding)
scaffolding: specific guidance and support the adults provide children to assist in mastering tasks within the Zone..
Self directed speech: (Piaget: egocentric speech)regulate and organize their own behaviors- later becomes internalized
make believe: symbolic play-support system that allowed children to act and think in more cognitive complex ways.
Reciprocal teaching method

84

Language errors

underextension : word can only be used for that particular object: ball used for only their toy ball but not all balls
Overextension: (overgeneralization) label all dogs as Byron: 22 m old: refers all vehicles as cars, but can point to a picture of a bus/truck when asked: have a greater understanding (comprehension) of language than is suggested by production

85

Baumrind and Colleagues
Parenting Styles

responsiveness (acceptance and warmth) and demandedness (control/expectations)
4 parenting styles that predict personality and behavioral outcome for child/adolescent:
-Authoritarian: ( High control, Low Warmth)shape, control and evaluate their child's behavior based on absolute set of standard. traditional model of parenting in which parents make the rules and children are expected to be obedient.
-Authoritative- (high Control, High Warmth) supportive and show interest in their kids' activities but are not overbearing and allow them to make constructive mistakes: - parents are assertive, socially responsible, and self confident.
Permissive: ( Low Control, High Warmth) warm and caring but make few demands and are not punitive: hold expectations of children that are below what could be reasonably expected of them. Children make up own rules- fail to learn self discipline and feel insecure. Parents tend to be immature, impulsive, self centered, easily frustrated and low achievement/independence.
- Rejecting-Neglecting (uninvolved). (Low Control, Low Warmth) low levels of responsibility and demandedness- overly hostile, juvenile delinquents.
--moderated by child' temperament/ culture

86

Malnutrition during prenatal development

severe malnutrition-protein deficiency in 3rd Trimester- detrimental to brain- reduced neurons, myelination, and neurotransmitter abnormalities; lack of Folic Acid- spina bifida 6 m to 9 m

87

Personality in adults

30 yrs. stable
agreeableness, social dominance, conscientiousness, and emotional stability increase
social vitality and openness are stable through middle adulthood but decline 55+

88

Operations

system of actions with definitive structural properties, representational act that is an integral part of an organizing network of related acts

89

Canalization

a child's genotype restricts his or her phenotype to a small number of possible outcomes

90

Gilligan's relationship Crisis

11 or 12 yrs. Relational crisis to fit into cultural stereotypes of the perfect woman, they disconnect from themselves to maintain a relationship: low achievement --loss of voice, low self esteem, vulnerability to psychological problems.