Physiological psychology and psychopharmacology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Physiological psychology and psychopharmacology Deck (80)
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1

List the sedative hypnotics

These drugs are generalized CNS depressants and are dose dependent ?

List Beta Blockers and what is the purpose
List Narcotic-Analgesics and purpose

Barbiturates, anxiolytics, alcohol

Low dose: reduce arousal and motor activity,
Moderate: sedation and sleep
High Dose: anesthesia , coma and death

Beta Blockers- Propranolol (Inderal) treat cardiovascular disorders and physical symptoms of anxiety

Narcotic-Analgesic: natural opioids (opium, morphine, codeine) semisynthetic derivatives of morphone ( heroine, Percodan, Dilaudid and pure synthetics (Demerol, Darvon, Methadone)- naturally occurring in the body-endorphins and enkephalins

2

List the Antidepressant Drugs.
How do they work and what do they treat?

-Tricyclic : Blocks the reuptake of Norepinephrine, Serotonin and dopamine supports the catecholamine hypothesis
treats: alleviate vegetative symptoms of depression, panic D/O, Agoraphobia, Bulimia Nervosa, OCD (clomipramine) enuresis (imipramine) neuropathic pain (amitriptyline and nortriptyline)

-SSRI (selective Serotonin reuptake inhibitors)
Block reuptake of serotonin
melancholic depression, OCD, Bulimia, Panic D/o and PTSD (common: fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine and sertraline)

-MAOI (monoamine oxidase inhibitors):
inhibits MAOI which is involved in deactivating dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin
non-endogenous and atypical depression that involves anxiety and vegetative symptoms. and interpersonal sensitivity

3

What is the oldest and most widely used drug to treat neuropathic pain?

Neuropathic pain is chronic pain that is due to a nervous system injury or dysfunction. The first-line treatments for neuropathic pain are analgesics, which include certain antidepressants, anticonvulsants, opioids, and local anesthetics.
-- Antidepressant drugs that increase levels of both serotonin and norepinephrine not only reduce the depression that often accompanies neuropathic pain but also have analgesic properties. The tricyclic amitriptyline is one of the oldest and most widely used tricyclic drug for neuropathic pain.

4

Abnormalities in which of the following areas of the brain have been linked to ADHD, OCD, and Tourette's Disorder?

The basal ganglia include the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus and are involved in the planning, execution, and speed of motor activity. Abnormalities in the basal ganglia have been linked to the disorders listed in this question.

5

A person with a brain injury is exhibiting unilateral neglect when he or she:

Unilateral neglect refers to impaired spatial awareness on one side of the body. People with unilateral neglect ignore objects on the affected side of the body (e.g., food on one side of their plate) and fail to groom and dress that side of the body.
Unilateral neglect is usually caused by damage to the right parietal or right parietal-occipital area and involves a lack of awareness of objects, people, and stimuli on the opposite (left) side of the body. (In this situation, it is also known as contralateral neglect.)

6

The James-Lange theory is classified as a peripheralist theory of emotion. He emphasized the role of ?

visceral and muscular reactions. Peripheral factors - emotions represent perception to bodily reactions to sensory stimuli
According to the James-Lange theory, "we are afraid because we run." In other words, emotions are perceptions of bodily reactions

7

Describe Akathisia
Dystonia
Akinesia

-Akathisia is an extrapyramidal side effect of the neuroleptic drugs and a symptom of Parkinson's disease and involves an unpleasant feeling of restlessness and need to move.
-Dystonia: Spasmas and contortions
Akinesia motor and psychic hypoactivity

8

Diabetes is associated with rapid changes in blood glucose levels and there is some evidence that these fluctuations are associated with ?

For some patients with type 2 diabetes, acute hyperglycemia can produce: Hyperglycemia refers to elevated blood glucose levels. There is evidence that, for some patients with type 2 diabetes, acute hyperglycemia produces substantial impairments in speed of information processing, working memory, and some aspects of attention as well as decreased happiness and alertness and increased agitation.

9

What hormones play a role in the sexual arousal of males and females?

Androgen
The research suggests that estrogen plays an insignificant role in female sexual motivation and arousal and that androgen, which is produced by the adrenal cortex, plays an important role in the sexual functioning of both males and females

10

What are the symptoms in hyperthyroidism?

What are the symptoms in hypoglycemia?

difficulties in concentration, forgetfulness, sensitivity to cold, unexplained weight gain and constipation

hypoglycemia: weakness, headache, hunger, and anxiety The symptoms of hypoglycemia include headache, dizziness, sweating, impaired concentration, confusion, clumsy or jerky movements, weakness, and, in extreme cases, convulsions or a loss of consciousness. is the result of low levels of blood glucose.

11

What is true about retrograde amnesia caused by moderate to severe head trauma?

Head trauma is most likely to affect more recent long-term memories. When memories begin to return, however, those that are most remote are recovered first. For example, if you forget everything that happened to you during the year prior to a head trauma, once you begin to recover your "lost" memories, you will first recall things that occurred 12 months prior to the trauma, than 11 months prior to the trauma, and so on.
The most recent memories are most vulnerable to amnesia but more remote memories are the first to be recovered. - you lose it and then you remember it as you lived it, from start to end

12

When is brain laterization for language first evident?

Brain lateralization refers to the process in which different functions become specialized in one of the two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex.
The research suggests that brain lateralization is already evident in the first few months of life. For example, there is evidence that newborns show greater electrical activity in the left hemisphere than in the right hemisphere in response to speech sounds.

13

What is the treatment for alcohol addiction?
And how does it work.

Disulfiram (Antabuse) inhibits alcohol metabolism causing an accumulation of acetaldehyde and unpleasant reactions (severe nausea, vomiting, sweating, headache
Naltrexone is an opioid receptor antagonist that blocks the craving for and reinforcing effects of alcohol

14

Migraines are most common in ___ and linked to the personality trait_____

The risk for migraine is higher for females than males; the onset of migraines is between puberty and mid-life; and personality characteristics that have been linked to migraines include perfectionism, neatness, restraint, and ambitiousness.

15

This Neurotransmitter is found in the peripheral nervous system, the spinal cord, and certain regions of the brain. In the peripheral nervous system, it activates both muscles and glands. The venom of the black widow spider is believed to work by causing a continuous flow of ___________ into the neuromuscular junction, resulting in uncontrollable muscle contractions

acetylcholine

16

Fluoxetine and other SSRIs act by

SSRI stands for selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, which means that the SSRIs exert their effects by reducing the uptake of serotonin at nerve synapses, thereby increasing their availability.

17

Teratogens can have a negative effect on fetal development during the entire pregnancy, but their consequences are much more severe during critical periods of development when the organ system is growing most rapidly. The critical period varies from organ to organ, but generally occurs within the first ____ weeks of development. (An exception is the central nervous system, which has a critical period that extends into the _____ week of development.)

8 weeks 2m (1st trimester = 1 to 13)

16 week 4 m (2nd = 14 to 27 wks. )

18

Research using neuroimaging techniques has pinpointed the location of specific emotional and behavior changes caused by frontal lobe damage.

Damage to the orbitofrontal areas produces what?

Damage to the medial frontal area?

Damage to the anterior cingulate area ?

Damage to the dorsolateral prefrontal area produces?

Damage to the orbitofrontal areas produces pseudopsychopathy (disinhibition and impulsive behavior), euphoria, lack of judgment and social tact, and distractibility. (around the orbit you get fake crazy)

medial frontal area produces akinesia, mutism, and weakness and loss of sensation in the lower extremities. (mute in the middle)

Damage to the anterior cingulate area is associated with apathy and paucity of speech and movement.

Damage to the dorsolateral prefrontal area produces impaired executive functioning, slowed information processing, and mood and personality changes (personality doros)

19

s a treatment for alcohol dependence, naltrexone exerts its therapeutic effects by blocking the craving for and reinforcing effects of alcohol.

What are the potential side effects of naltrexone. Note, however, that most people experience few side effects when taking naltrexone as a treatment for alcohol dependence.

What are the side effects of carbamazepine, an anti-seizure drug that is also used to treat bipolar disorder.

What are the possible side effects of the MAOI inhibitors.

What the are possible side effects of the beta blocker propranolol?

Naltrexone: abdominal cramping, nausea, insomnia, nervousness, and headache

Carbamazepine: dizziness, ataxia, visual disturbances, nausea, and rash

MAOI inhibiters: . blurred vision, sexual dysfunction, weight gain, edema, and tremor

Propranolol shortness of breath, increased dreaming, nausea, diarrhea, and bradycardia

20

What is responsible for the body's fight or flight?

The term "fight or flight" refers to the response of the glands and smooth muscles to dangerous or emergency situations.
It is the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system that is responsible for the body's fight or flight reaction (e.g., increased heart rate, cessation of digestive processes).

21

HM went through bilateral medial temporal lobectomy as a treatment for severe epilepsy. What happened as a result?

While H.M.'s short-term and remote long-term memory were intact, he was unable to form new long-term memories and had trouble retrieving information from recent long-term memory.

22

Glutamate acts as what? and plays a role in? when excessive what happens?

Glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and spinal cord. It's known to play a role in learning and memory, including long-term potentiation (LTP) which is a brain mechanism that's believed to be responsible for the formation of long-term memories. There's also evidence that excessive glutamate receptor activity ("excitotoxicity") contributes to stroke-related brain damage, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and other neurodegenerative disorders.

23

Renal failure is also known as kidney failure and occurs when the kidneys are no longer able to remove waste from the body and maintain a normal level of electrolytes in the bloodstream. However, in many cases, the initial symptoms are a change in the amount and frequency of

urination and discomfort or pain when urinating. The change can involve an increase in urination (polyuria) with urine being paler than usual or a decrease in urination (oliguria) with urine being darker than usual.

24

1. The ___________cortex contains the secondary and tertiary olfactory cortical areas and is involved in the conscious perception of odors; while the ______ plays an important role in olfactory memory.

2. The ________ cortex (insula) is part of the limbic system and is involved in emotions and pain. The ____ is also part of the limbic system; it controls emotions and has been identified as a "pleasure area" of the brain.

3. The ______ cortex is located in the parietal lobe and processes information related to touch. Also, olfaction is the only sensory system that does not send incoming signals directly to the ___________.

4. The _____cortex is part of the limbic system and has been linked to several functions including pain perception and reward-based decision making. The _______is part of the hindbrain and mediates vital bodily functions such as breathing and heartbeat

1. orbitofrontal: amygdala

2. The insular : septum

3. somatosensory: thalamus


4. cingulate: Medulla

25

What are the side effects from taking lithium carbonate as a treatment for Bipolar Disorder?

Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, anorexia, and dry mouth are common early gastrointestinal side effects of lithium. These symptoms usually appear within a few weeks and, if they occur late in therapy, may be a sign of lithium toxicity

26

Damage to the orbitofrontal areas produces?

Damage to the medial frontal area produces?

Damage to the anterior cingulate area is associated with?


Damage to the dorsolateral prefrontal area produces?

Research using neuroimaging techniques has pinpointed the location of specific emotional and behavior changes caused by frontal lobe damage.

Damage to the orbitofrontal areas produces pseudopsychopathy (disinhibition and impulsive behavior), euphoria, lack of judgment and social tact, and distractibility.

Damage to the medial frontal area produces akinesia, mutism, and weakness and loss of sensation in the lower extremities.

Damage to the anterior cingulate area is associated with apathy and paucity of speech and movement.

Damage to the dorsolateral prefrontal area produces impaired executive functioning, slowed information processing, and mood and personality changes.

27

An EEG measures electrical activity of the brain and, in terms of traumatic brain injury has been used to detect?

Several methods are used to identify vestibular disturbances including?


This is useful for detecting acute hematomas and other types of hemorrhage?

This is used to evaluate cerebral blood flow.

An EEG measures electrical activity of the brain and, in terms of traumatic brain injury, has been used to detect focal slowing and epileptiform activity. Research on the use of standard EEG as a diagnostic tool for traumatic brain injury has found that it is most effective for detecting seizure activity.

Several methods are used to identify vestibular disturbances including ENG (electronystagmography) and VAT (vestibular autorotation test). (A link between your inner ear and your brain helps you keep your balance when you get out of bed or walk over rough ground. This is called your vestibular system. If a disease or injury damages this system, you can have a vestibular disorder. Dizziness and trouble with your balance are the most common symptoms, but you also can have problems with your hearing and vision.)

CT (computerized tomography) is useful for detecting acute hematomas and other types of hemorrhage.

Functional neuroimaging techniques are used to evaluate cerebral blood flow.

28

What Is a PET Scan?



What Is a CT Scan?




What Is an MRI?

Positron emission tomography (PET) scans use a special dye that contains radioactive tracers to identify how well your organs and other tissue inside your body are functioning. These radioactive tracers are swallowed, inhaled, or injected into the veins, and a scan detects the activity of the tracers once inside the body. The tracers collect in areas of the body with high chemical activity, which is typically a sign of disease such as cancer. The tracers are also used to measure blood flow, oxygen use, sugar levels, and the like.

PET scans are typically used in conjunction with a CT scan or MRI.

Computed tomography (CT) scans, on the other hand, works much like an X-ray, only with greater, 3D detail of the organs, bones, and tissues inside your body.

During the scan, a narrow x-ray beam circles your body, taking a series of images from different angles. These images are stored in a computer that can, in turn, create a cross-sectional view of the body part under examination.

These images are used to detect bone and joint problems, critical conditions like cancer and heart disease, and evidence of internal bleeding, tumors, or blood clots. It may also use a contrast dye for even better clarity on the resulting images.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) also takes detailed pictures of internal organs – but instead of using X-ray technology, an MRI uses powerful magnets, radio waves, and computer technology to create its images. It may be used with or without a contrast dye to see internal structures more clearly.

During the MRI, you lay within a tube-like machine that produces a strong magnetic field to create its images, which are processed and stored in a computer. There is no radiation used during an MRI.
--side note-- MRIs have revealed that individuals in the early stages of Alzheimer's Dementia have a reduction in the volume of the entorhinal cortex of up to 30% when compared to healthy peers and that those in the later stages show a reduction of up to 45%. See, e.g., M. Bobinski et al., MRI of entorhinal cortex in mild Alzheimer's disease, Lancet, 353, 38-40, 1999.

29

Amphetamine psychosis and Schizophrenia share a number of symptoms. Why?

Amphetamine psychosis and Schizophrenia share a number of symptoms. Because amphetamines are known to exert their effects on dopamine pathways, this similarity confirms that dopamine also plays a role in Schizophrenia.

30

A patient taking a benzodiazepine develops several undesirable symptoms including insomnia, nightmares, hallucinations, and rage reactions. These symptoms suggest what?

__________ is fairly rare and involves hypotension, depressed respiration, and, in severe cases, coma.

_________ include dry mouth and blurred vision.

___________ may occur when the drug is stopped and is characterized by intense anxiety symptoms.

The benzodiazepines are associated with several undesirable side effects including rebound anxiety, physical and psychological dependence, and withdrawal symptoms. Insomnia and the symptoms listed in the question are the symptoms of paradoxical agitation, which is most likely to occur in people with a history of aggressive behavior or unstable emotional behavior.


Overdose

Anticholinergic effects


Rebound anxiety