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age and second language learning

ability to achieve native-like pronunciation of a second language when exposure begins in early or middle childhood
adolescents and adults make faster progress (esp. in regards to syntax and morphology)


Theories of Language development:

Chomsky: brains contain a language acquisition device (LAD) that includes a universal
grammar that underlies all human language. children are born with a knowledge of general rules of
syntax that determine how sentences are constructed. Language develops as long as the infant is exposed to it/against Skinner's idea that language is developed by teaching/imitation and reinforcements.
Interactionist : bio and environmental factors. social interactions-motherese
- extension parents adds to the child's statement but keeps word order
-extension: parents add information to child's statement



expressive -output that adher to rule governing order
Syntax- sentence structure
pragmatics: social use of language within a social context
Semantic: The meanings of words
Receptive Language: Auditory comprehensions of messages


Kohlberg's theory of moral development

3 levels
1- preconventional (4 to 10) (based on punishment) punishment obedience act depends on consequence if it is punishment's that the action is wrong: self interest and reward, goodness/badness -comply with rules to avoid punishment and get reward (man stealing is wrong because he will get a beat down. Stealing is right because his wife will give him a kiss)
--instrumental hedonism more on obtaining rewards than punishments
good boy/good girl: right action is liked/approved by others. (he should break into the store and then everyone will think he is a good husband: he should not because it is against the law)right and wrong is determined by what other's think/ want to please others/ social norms and laws-want to be a good member of a group: a good decision is one that gains approval from others or that complies with the law: people care about the effect of their actions on others
-Post Conventional: Social contracts est. for the good of all and can transcend self and social convention. Man should break into the store even if it is against the law b/c the wife needs the drug and her life is more important; man should not violate the principle of the right of property bc this rule is essential for social order: based on concern for others for society as a whole and ethical standards rather than legal-goes beyond convention or what other's think to a higher universal principle of conduct that may or may not reflect the law. -requires the ability to think abstractly


Stages of prenatal development

3 stages
0-2 wks.-germinal (zygote fertilized ovum)
3-8wk: embryonic
9wk-birth: fetal


Theory of mind

ability to make interferes about another's representational states and predict behavior (to think about other people's thoughts) (people have diverse desires, beliefs, access to knowledge, and false beliefs)
2-3yrs. people have different perceptions, emotions ect, that influence behavior
4 to 5 other persons' thoughts maybe false, people act on false beliefs
after 5 people's actions are not consistent with true beliefs
Influenced by different factors- engages in pretend play, school adjustment, siblings parent-child interaction


Major Reflexes in New Born

Babinski: toes out and up when tickled
Rooting: head in direction touches
Moro (Startle) flings arms and legs out then towards the body
Stepping walk movement when held upright.


genotype-environment correlations

3 types
passive genotype-environment-encouraged: passively inherit the genes and the environment their parent's provide: athletically inclined
Evocative- evokes reactions from parents: how the social environment reacts to individuals based on their inherited characteristics" outgoing or shy temperament will affect how he/she is treated by other people.
active- (niche picking) actively seeks out experiences-consistent with predisposition: children who are musically inclined seek out music instructions


Physical Changes in Adulthood,

decrease visual acuity, depth, color Presbyopia-difficulty focusing-starts in mid 40s
Increase light sensitivity,
Deficits: visual search, dynamic vision-(perceive details of moving objects) speed of visual processing
Audition: decreased ability to perceive high frequency
Strength coordination and reaction time. slow up: sensorimotor, perception and cognition



polygenetic-height, intelligence,-multiple genes
Dominant gene:
Homozygous both parents
hetero- one parent
Genotype: inheritance
Phonotype: what you see


Psychosexual Theory

Stages of Psychosexual Development: ID-basic urges needs, desires, largest past of the child's mind, child behaves in order to meet these pleasure seeking energies and libido becomes the driving force. Ego develops in infancy-conscious, rational. Superego (conscience) 2 to 6 years
Oral (B- 1fixation-dependence, gullibility, sarcasm and orally focused habits
Anal (1-3yrs.) anal retentiveness (stinginess, selfishness, OCD,) anal expulsiveness (cruelty, destructiveness and messiness)
Phallic (3-6) Oedipal Conflict: (pleasure in genital stimulation- develop desire for the opposite sex parent (oedipal complex) as child begins to avoid punishment for these feelings-align with same sex parents(Electra Complex) Superego forms as a results of conflict and resolution sexual exploitations of others
Latency (6 - 12) diffuse not focused, develop social skills over sexual gratification
Genital (12+) produce mature sexual relationships



the emergence of new structures and functions during the course of development. -bidirectional relation between all levels of biological and experiential factors, genetic activity both influences and is influenced by structural maturation
Ex: genes determine the production of protein molecules- form structures of muscles/new cells that activity of these can serve to turn on or off a particular gene there by cause genetic activity. also self produced activity or stimulation for external sources alter the development of sets of cells.
modification in gene expression and are passed on when cells divide: nutrition, stress and teratogens can change gene expressions by switching genes on and off- monozygotic twins gene expression match as infants, had discrepancies as they age-due to different experience- susceptibility to disease and personal characteristics.


perceptual development

Vision: B- 20 ft.-- 6 mo. same as normal adult
-kinetic, binocular, pictorial cues for depth perception
Audition: in utero-auditory localization (ability to orient to direction of sound) shortly after birth, disappears btwn 2 to 4 mo. and reappears and improves for the rest of the year. -- 3 mo. prefer mom's voice -- Birth distinguish between "a' and "i" sounds, 3 mo. consonants.
Taste and Sound within hours after birth.


Patterson and colleagues
Causes of aggression

Family contribution to aggression
Interaction model of aggression. children focus on parent's behavior but recognizes role of coercive exchanges -both act aggressively in order to alter behavior of the other, this pattern escalate over time. aggressiveness is initiated by parent modeling and reinforcement, overtime children acquire aggressive behaviors, the aggressive interactions between child and parents increase in intensity
Learn behavior from parents- do not reinforce prosocial behaviors, use harsh disciple and reward aggression, -Oregon Model of parent management training


Early Childhood: Social and emotional Development

pre operational


The effects of teratogens on fetal development depend on several factors including the type and amount of the substance, the duration of exposure, the time of exposure, and the mother's physiological condition.

Teratogens can have a negative effect on fetal development during the entire pregnancy, but their consequences are much more severe during critical periods of development when the organ system is growing most rapidly. The critical period varies from organ to organ, but generally occurs within the first _________ of development. (An exception is the central nervous system, which has a critical period that extends into the ___ week of development.)

eight weeks:




denial isolation


The cognitive distortions (errors in reasoning) identified by Beck include ________, ___________ and ________.

The __________refers specifically to the cognitive profile underlying depression (i.e., negative views of oneself, the world, and the future).

__________are ways of organizing and interpreting experiences that develop in early childhood and may be latent until later in life when they are activated by stress.

_____________ are repetitive, automatic self-statements that are elicited by certain stimuli and that are associated with strong emotions

overgeneralization, personalization, and catastrophizing

cognitive triad


Automatic thoughts


ages :distinguish fact from fantasy
-research on TV and children

Research on child and TV
3 to 4 yrs. people on TV can see into their homes
-may believe that people who act dead on TV are really dead
4 or 5 commercials are only entertainment- by 8 understand that commercial are to influence you to buy a product
7 to 9 yrs. understanding that they are playing a part.
Violence on TV-increases aggressive behaviors and tolerance
reinforces traditional gender roles, reduce physical activity read less, less family interaction less creative, poorly in school
benefit: vocabulary acquisition, cognitive skills, prosocial attitudes, cognitive skills.


Cartensen's socioemotional selectivity theory

preference for adults for emotionally close vs novel social partners is related to difference in time perspective: compares motivation and preferences of adults in different age groups; older adults have different preferences than younger, but differences are not due solely to age, but awareness of time left to live-perceive time as unlimited-novel social partners, time as limited prefer emotionally close and have fewer partners as a result


Neo Piagetian

info processing and piagetian approach
biological maturation and experience- individuals actively construct their knowledge, focus on developmental changes, and the impact of the context in which it develops. uneveness is a normal part of development.


Rutter's indicators
Risk and resiliency in childhood

6 family risk factors
1-marital discord
2-low ses
3- large family size
4-parental criminality,
5-maternal psychopathology, 6- placement outside the home.
Resiliency for high risk children
reduce risk impact, reduce negative chain reaction, promote self esteem, and self efficacy



different socialization mechanisms that promote conscience development in children with different temperamental traits: focused on fearfulness and parent's socialization practice:
A number of researchers have found that fearful children score higher on measures of conscience, and Kochanska extended this finding by showing that the relationship between fearfulness and conscience development is affected by caregivers' socialization practices. Specifically, she found that, among fearful toddlers, conscience development is fostered when the mother uses "gentle discipline." In contrast, among fearless toddlers, conscience development depends more on a secure mother-child attachment and maternal responsiveness


Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the second-most common cause of an intellectual disability after Down Syndrome and is likely to cause

CMV is a type of herpes virus. Although infection with CMV during adulthood usually produces no or mild symptoms, infection during prenatal development or birth can be life-threatening.

Approximately 10% of infants infected with CMV show symptoms at birth, and about 10 to 15% of infants who are asymptomatic at birth develop symptoms during the first few years of life. Common symptoms include some degree of intellectual disability and hearing and visual impairments.

: hearing and visual impairments



can occur during pregnancy, child birth, feeding; HIV positive- 20 to 30% chance
20% receiving treatment exhibit syp. first 2 years,
80% age 3 or later
50% live past 10 yrs



Gender Schema Theory:
Children develop their own conceptions of the attributes associated with maleness and femaleness -identify a gender, seek out information about gender traits, behaviors and roles, constructivist theory


Bjorklund and Pellegrini
evolutionary psychology

proposed hypothesis:
Prolonged juvenile period(time to develop large brain)
Childhood behaviors prepare child for adulthood-doll playing
psychological mechanisms are domain specific (info processing)- to deal with problems in environment)- mate selection, food acquisition: infants are constrained to process certain info in a core domain; so not to become overstimulated)
evolved adaptive behaviors that are not adaptive now- overeating bc of food scarcity-now obesity


signs of secure attachment

social referencing: 14 to 18 mo
separation anxiety 6 to 8 peaks 14 to 18
stranger anxiety 8 to 10 continues to age 2


Konrad Lorenz

Goslings-critical period


Chess and Thomas
Goodness of Fit

9 Dimensions of Temperament ( Activity level, rhythmicity (regularity of
bio functions), approach/withdrawal (how children deal with new things), adaptability to
situations, intensity of reactions, threshold of responsiveness (how intense a stimulus has to be
for the child to react), quality of mood, distractibility, attention span, and persistence
categorized into 3 general types.
1-easy: can adapt, Calm, Easy to Soothe, Positive Mood
2- Difficult: Reacts Neg. never sits, trouble adapting, neg. mood, cries
3- Slow to warm up: Low activity level, slow to adjust, neg mood
goodness of fit: styles match and comm. and interaction can flow: parents accept temperament