Inflammatory Bowel Disease Flashcards Preview

07. Year 2: Alimentary System > Inflammatory Bowel Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Deck (69)
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1

What is inflammatory bowel disease?

Chronic, relapsing, remitting inflammation of the GI tract

2

What are examples of inflammatory bowel disease?

Crohn's disease

Ulcerative colitis

3

What do Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis differ in?

Location and inflammation

4

When does inflammatory bowel disease commonly present?

In the teens and twenties

5

What can IBD be due to?

Genome

Microbiome

Environment

6

Is IBD medelian inherited?

No, but has genetic susceptibility

7

What kind of genetic variation makes people genetically susceptible to IBD?

SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms)

8

What percentage of someones offspring who has IBD will also develop IBD?

10%

9

What do genes that cause inflammatory bowel disease regulate?

Epithelial barrier

Immune response

Bacterial handling

10

What is the pathogenesis of IBD?

Pathogenic gut causes altered microbiota

Damaged epithelial barrier increases bacterial adhesion and translocation

Chronic inflammation occurs

11

What is the ratio of microbial cells in the gut lumen to eukaryotic cells in the human body?

10:1

12

How many different species of bacteria are present in the gut?

At least 500 different species

13

What is the metabolic activity of all gut bacteria equivalent to?

That of the liver

14

What part of the gut contains the most bacteria?

Colon

15

What is different in the microbiota of people with IBD compared to those without?

In IBD there is a dysbosia in microbial communities

16

What kind of bacteria is massively more present in people with IBD than those who do not have it?

Proteobacteria

17

What is ulcerative colitis?

Chronic condition where the colon and rectum become inflammed

18

How does ulcerative colitis affect males compared to females?

Both affected the same

19

What are symptoms of ulcerative colitis?

Blood diarrhoea

Abdominal pain

Weight loss

Fatigue

20

What investigations are done for ulcerative colitis?

Bloods for markers of inflammation

Stool culture to rule out infection

Faecal calprotectin

Colonoscopy and colon mucosal biopsies

21

What are examples of markers of inflammation checked for in ulcerative colitis?

Normocytic anaemia

Increased CPR/platelets

Low albumin

22

What is considered normal faecal calprotectin?

<50ug/g of stool

23

What is considered elevated faecal calprotectin?

>200ug/g of stool

24

What is faecal calprotectin?

Substance that is released into the intestines when inflammation is present

25

Where in the GI tract is inflammation due to ulcerative colitis present?

Only in the colon, starting at the rectum and working proximally

26

What percentage of people with ulcerative colitis require a colectomy within 10 years of diagnosis?

20-30%

27

What are the different levels of severity of ulcerative colities?

Mild

Moderate

Severe

Fulminant

28

What are characteristics of mild ulcerative colitis?

<4 stools/day

With or without blood

Normal ESR

No signs of toxicity

29

What are characteristics of moderate ulcerative colitis?

4-6 stools/day

Occasional blood

Minimal signs of toxicity

CRP less than or equal to 30mg/L

30

What are characteristics of severe ulcerative colitis?

More than or equal to 6 blood stools/day

AND any of:

temperature > 37.8

tachycardia > 90bpm

anaemia (Hb < 105g/L)

ESR > 30mm/h, CRP > 30mg/L