This image shows an antigen-presenting cell activating a CD4 Th cell. Identify (A-E), which all activate the Th cell.
(A) MHC II; (B) T-cell receptor; (C) CD4; (D) B7; (E) CD28
Shown here are two cells coactivating a third cell critical to cellular immunity. Identify the cells involved (A-C).
(A) virus-infected cell; (B) Th cell (CD4); (C) Tc cell (CD8+)
This image shows a Th cell inducing a B cell to class switch and make antibodies. Identify (A-C), which all activate the B cell.
(A) Th2 cytokines (interleukin-4, -5, and -6); (B) CD40L; (C) CD40
Identify and describe the process shown, in which the coating of a bacterium with antibodies summons an important immune cell.
Opsonization, in which an antibody promotes the phagocytosis of an antigen by a phagocyte
Identify and describe the process shown, in which the coating of a bacterium with antibodies prevents it from approaching the cells.
Neutralization, in which an antibody attaches to an antigen and prevents adherence to cells
Which cells are responsible for innate immunity?
Neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, and the complement system
_____ (Adaptive/Innate) immunity is encoded into the germ line and reacts to a set of static parameters that humans have adapted to combat over evolutionary time.
_____ (Adaptive/Innate) immunity has target molecules that are encoded in the germline as opposed to reacting to novel challenges.
What is the benefit of germline encoding of target antigen recognition by the innate immune system?
It allows innate immunity to be both fast and nonspecific
How does the adaptive immune response differ during first and second exposures to an antigen?
Adaptive immunity is slow to develop on first exposure but fast on any subsequent exposures
What are the components of the adaptive immune system?
T cells, B cells, and circulating antibody
Th1 and Th2 cells are specialized descendants of which type of cell?
CD4+ helper T cells
What type of T cells activate macrophages and CD8+ T cells by producing interleukin-2 and γ-interferon?
What type of T cells activate B cells to make antibody by producing interleukin-4 and interleukin-5?
What is the effect of interleukin-12 on T cells?
It induces the differentiation of naive helper T cells into Th1 cells, resulting in increased cell-mediated immunity
What is the role of interleukin-4 in T-cell maturation?
Interleukin-4 induces the differentiation of native helper T cells to Th2 cells resulting in increased antibody-mediated immunity
Th1 cells have what functions?
The activation of macrophages and CD8+ T cells by producing interleukin-2 and γ-interferon
Th2 cells have what functions?
The activation of B cells to make antibodies by producing interleukin-4 and interleukin-5
Where in the body are T cell precursors found?
In the bone marrow
T cell precursor cells give rise to what cell type?
CD4+/CD8+ T cells
CD4+/CD8+ T cells are found where?
In the cortex of the thymus
CD4+ T cells give rise to what cell line?
Helper T cells
CD8+ T cells give rise to what cell line?
Cytotoxic T cells
Interleukin-10 inhibits _____ (Th1/Th2) cells.
What is the name of the set of genes that encode the major histocompatibility complex?
Human leukocyte antigen genes
On which cells is major histocompatibility complex I expressed?
Almost all nucleated cells
What are the three major histocompatibility complex I class genetic loci?
Human leukocyte antigen-A, human leukocyte antigen-B, and human leukocyte antigen-C
Which cells express major histocompatibility complex II?
What are the three major histocompatibility complex II class genetic loci?
Human leukocyte antigen-DR, human leukocyte antigen-DP, and Human leukocyte antigen-DQ
For cells expressing major histocompatibility complex I, where is antigen loaded into the peptide-binding groove? Where does this occur for cells expressing major histocompatibility complex II?
Antigen is loaded into the rough endoplasmic reticulum of mostly intracellular peptides for cells expressing major histocompatibility complex I; for cells expressing major histocompatibility complex II, antigen is loaded in acidified endosomes