IMI1: The components of the immune system and introduction to innate immunity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in IMI1: The components of the immune system and introduction to innate immunity Deck (151)
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1

What are the effects of X-linked serve combined immunodeficiency (SCID)

Born without a functional immune system
No: T cells & NK cells and non-functional B-cells

2

Which types of cells are lymphoid?

T cells, B cells and NK cells

3

Which type of cells are myeloid cells?

monocytes (precursors to macrophages), mast cells, dendritic cells, neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils

4

T or F only B cells are mediators of immune memory? Explain your answer

False: Both B and T cells mediate memory, they are produced at the same time as effector cells

5

Can you survive long without T cells?

No you would die in infancy

6

What are NK cells?

Large cytotoxic lymphocytes that patrol the blood for virally-infected or damaged cells, which hey are able to recognise despite lacking variable receptors

7

Which types of microorganisms can cause disease?

-viruses
-bacteria
-fungi
-commensal micro-organisms (if they become out of control or leave natural environment)
-parasites

8

How does SCID come about?

one single mutation in a chain that makes part of a cytokine receptor complex (γC)

9

What are cytokines?

small polypeptides that are used as messengers in the immune system. Several cytokines utilise common cytokine receptor γ-chains (γC) and, through these receptors, control essential immune responses that use both common and distinct checkpoints

10

What does commensal bacteria mean?

good bacteria
including viruses, fungi and archaea

11

Individuals who develop allergies are thought to..?

Have less diverse microbiomes

12

How much smaller are viruses then bacteria?

10x

13

How many m^2 of skin is there on average on a human body?

2

14

How many m^2 of mucus membrane is there on average on a human body?

400

15

Describe the mechanical and chemical defence of the skin

M: Longitudinal flow of air or fluid
C: fatty acid, B-defensins, lamellar bodies, cathelicidin

16

Describe the mechanical and chemical defence of the gut

M: Longitudinal flow of air or fluid
C: Low pH, Enzyme (pepsin), a-defensins (cryptdins), Reglll (lecticidins), Cathelicidin

17

Describe the mechanical and chemical defence of the lungs

M: Movement of mucus by cilia
C: Pulmonary surfactant and Cathelicidin

18

Describe the mechanical and chemical defence of the eye/nose/oral cavity

M: Tears and nasal cilia
C: Enzymes in tears and saliva (lysozyme) and histatins, B-defensins

19

What is the mechanical protection common to all barriers?

Epithelial cells joined by tight junctions

20

What chemical barrier do skin, gut and lungs have in common?

Cathelicidin

21

Which barriers have B-defensins as part of the chemical mechanisms?

Skin
Eyes/nose/oral cavity

22

Which barriers have a-defensins as part of the chemical mechanisms?

Gut
Lungs

23

What is the common microbiological barrier for skin, gut, lungs and eyes/nose/oral cavity?

The normal microbiota which competes with pathogenic ones

24

What is the second line of defence against a pathogen

innate immune response

25

State the typical features of innate immune response

Broad-acting (lacking specificity)
fast-acting and can last for days

26

Why is the adaptive immune response of only deployed is completely necessary?

It involves an array of new cells and proteins and thus costs much metabolic energy to the body which could be used otherwise in other physiological functions.

27

Name the organs of the immune system

- Adenoids
- Tonsils
- Thymus
- Bronchial-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT)
- Axillary lymph nodes
- Bone marrow
- Lymph nodes
- Lymphatic vessels
- Appendix
- Spleen
- Peyer's patch
- Inguinal lymph nodes

28

What are adenoids?

A pair of mucosa-associated lymphoid organs located inside the nose

29

Describe the tonsils

Large group of lymphoid cells that are located on each side of the larynx

30

What matures in the thymus?

T-cells