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why does the IPCC receive criticism?

2010 - mistakes and wrong data over melting of Himalayan glacier

2019 - under estimating pace and impact of climate change


why is global warming such a debate?

Its a global issue - not just gonna go away

political dimension eg conservative vs labour

Donald trump sceptic - economic impact on western world if we mitigate

science and earth systems ate complicated - models aren't fully correct/ error bars


is flooding in the UK related to climate change?


also due to river regulations and increase in builidng on flood plain


are heatwaves and warmest years related to climate change?

most likely if theres evidence

10 warmest years have been recent eg 2016/9/15


are hurricanes related to climate change?


as it creates warm oceans, low pressure systems , rise in sea level


define weather

mix of events that happen each day in the atmosphere including temp - humidity - rain


define climate

average weather pattern in a place over many years


what 4 things control earths climate?

green house gases

solar radiation

polar ice

ocean circ pattersn


what is the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change UNFCCC?I

International treaty priduced by united nations conference in 1992 (earth summit)

objective - stabilise greenhouse gas concentrations in atmosphere at a level which prevents dangerous climate change

this is framework


what is the Kyoto protocol?

sets binding targets for 37 industrial used countries and European community for reducing GHG emissions

legally binding in feb 2005
but not all nations ratified protocol


What is the Paris Agreenment ?

mitigation - reduce emissions

keep temp well below 2 degrees above pre-industrial levels

aim to limit incrase to 1.5 degrees

supports developing countries
monitor and evaulate progress


what is the intergovernmental panel on climate chanfe IPCC

Scientific body which assesses current state of climate change and its environment and socio-ecnomic consequneces

doesn't carry out own research and work - publicate assessment reports and review clmate change science


how much nitrogen in atmopshere



How much oxygen in atmos



how much co2 in atmos



how much methane in atmos



describe the snow ball earth theory

650 million years ago in pre-Cambrian period whole earth covered in ice from poles to tropics

life only survived in ice free forms or when sun penetrated the snow and melted it to allow photosynethesis


describe the process of solar radiation entering atmosphere

incoming short wave radiation reaches earths surface and heats it up

some heat reflected back to space called longwave radiation - infrared

some heat re-radiated and absorbed

most heat absorbed by GHG and reflected in all directions which warms earth in troposphere this makes earth habitable


name 5 main GHG


carbon dioxide

nitrous oxide

water vapou

F gases - perfluro carbons and sulphur hexafluoride


define the ozone hole

region of very depleted ozone in stratosphere over Antarctic that happens at beginning of southern hesmisphere spring


what are man made chloroflouro carbons CFC

contribute to thinning of ozone layer

allow large quantities of harmful UV rays to reach earth

used in refrigerators - not using CFCs helps close ozone hole


how do we know atmospheric build up of GHG is due to humans ?

changes in the atmosphere of 14C and 12C ratio - as co2 release through fossil fuels is low in 14C so 14C has reduced in atmosphere

increase in co2 far exceeds boundary of natural variability


what were the pre industrial concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide

co2 - 280 ppm

ch4 - 700ppb

n20 - 275ppm


what are methane hydrate deposits

found in high arctic and continental shelves
stable under pressure deep in cold waters

when they warm up and pressure released when they become unstable

air burns them

global warming could lead to runaway warming effects - release of trapped methane in unstable deposits


what happened in eocene- super GHG

56- 33.9 mill years ago

abrupt warming of oceans due to release if gashydrates