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Flashcards in General Deck (38)
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1

Go look for the adenoma please

Loss of pit hormone due to pressure
G – GH
L – LH
F – FSH
T – FSH
A – ACTH
P – Prolactin function

2

Hashimotos features

Hypothyroidism
Anti thyroid peroxidase antibodies, high TSH, Low T4, associated with autoimmune

3

CAH symptoms

Lack of aldosterone - Hyponatremia
Hyperkalemia

Lack of cortisol - hypoglycemia

Deletion on chromosome 11

4

What are Androgen and estrogen responsible for in puberty

Androgen- pubic hair, odor, acne-male
Female - Odor and hair


Estrogen-breast, increased uterine size, menarche

5

what are causes of Secondary ammenorrhea

Pregnancy
Hypothalamic dysfunction-AN, chronic disease
Pituitary mass
Ovarian dysfunction - PcOS, ovarian and adrenal tumor
Endo - hypo hyper thyroid
Premature ovarian failure

6

DKA risk factors

1st presentation
Less than 5 yrs
Initial corrected Na > 145, ph

7

Meds causing gynecomastia

Ca channel blockers
Hormonal meds
Experimental
pSych- TCA, diazepam
Testosterone antagonist - spironolactone, ranitidine, cimetidine, ketoconazole

8

WAGR Syndrome

Wilms tumor
Aniridia
GU abnormalities
Retardation

Obesity

9

anosmia, delayed puberty, high arched palate, synkinesia

Kallman's syndrome

10

Delayed puberty signs

growth vlocity
visual fields
galactorhea
small testes, gynecomastia, tall - klinefelter
low BMI - AN
signs of hypothyroidism
signs of chronic disease

11

endo exam- what is required

hgt, wgt, HC
growth pattern
BMI
arm span and upper seg to lower seg ( pubic symphisis to floor and take away from hgt
midparental hgt
vitals

12

signs of hypothyroidism

short
incr BMI
slow pulse
dry coolskin
dry hair
periorbital puffiness
slow speech
hoarse voice

13

Signs of hyperthyroidism

goiter
tachy
wgt loss
tremor
heat intol
hair loss
pain with looking to side for inflammation of eye muscles
secondary enuresis
ophthalmoplegia

14

Signs of cortisol def

growth failure
weakness
hyperpigmentation
micropenis or ambiguous -
hypotonia

15

when does the growth spurt start in girls?

Tanner 3 for breast dev, peak velocity 8.3 cm/yr

16

when does the growth spurt start in boys?

stage 4, peak velocity 9.5 cm

17

what disorder will have an increased upper to lower body ratio

achondroplasia

18

what disorders will have a decreased U/L segment ration

klinefelter
kallman

19

what are the 4 hormones required for proper growth

GH
thyroxine
androgens
cortisol

20

what features makes you think of constitutional growth delay?

normal or near normal growth velocity
delayed bone age
Delayed puberty
end up with expected height

21

What are clinical features of hypoglycemia in a newborn?

jitteriness
poor feeding
pallor
low tone
low temp
apnea
dec LOC
bradycardia
Sz

22

What are clinical features of hypoglycemia in the older child?

confusion
tremor
sweating
visual changes
HA
tachycardia
weakness
Sx
coma

23

what are neonatal causes of hyperinsulinism?

baby of DM mom
Beckwith-wiedemann

24

How do you diagnose hyperinsulinism?

if hypoglycemia and insulin is inappropriately high

25

if patient mentions that they need to consume uncooked cornstartch - what is the Dx

glucose 6 phosphatase def
severe hypoglycemia + ketosis
hepatomegaly
growth retartdation
lactic acidosis

26

what are the clinical features of MCAD

medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase def:
- fasting hypoglycemia
- mild hepatomegaly
- mild inc LFT
- mild hyperuricemia
- mild inc NH4
NO KETONES
DX: urine + dicarboxylic acid

27

what are physical features of Kallman syndrome

decreased sense of smell
one hand copies other
short 4th metacarpal
absent kidney

28

what is hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

CENTRAL ISSUE
Absent or decreased ability of the hypothalamus to secrete GnRH or the pituitary gland to secrete LH and FSH

29

what would you see on MRI if thought pt had Kallman?

absent olfactory bulbs and sulci

30

what are the MC causes of hypogodadotropic hypogonadism

1. constitutional
2. CNS tumours
3. Kallman
4.syndromes - prader willi
5. functional - AN, hypothyroidism, chronic disease, DM, athletes