Gait: intro, ankle, knee Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Gait: intro, ankle, knee Deck (90)
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1

What what phase, stance or swing, do we spend most of our time on the limb of focus?

60% of time in stance phase
40% of time in swing

2

What is the difference between step length and stride length? What are normal values?

- step length = right foot to left foot: 72 cm

- stride length = right foot to right foot: 144 cm

3

When is the first phase of double-limb support?

loading

4

How many degrees of foot angle are normal?

5-7 degrees of toe-out

5

If someone has a greater than normal angle of toe out, what is this called?

duck toe

6

What is cadence?

number of steps per minute; a temporal descriptor of gait

7

What are the 3 temporal descriptors of gait?

cadence
step time
stride time

8

What is gait cycle time also called?

stride time

9

T/F: Step length = gait cycle step.

false, stride length = gait cycle step

10

What are normal values for step width?

8-10cm

11

When increasing walking speed, what happens to stance time and swing time?

With increased walking speed
- stance time decreases
- swing time increases

12

T/F: Step length increases when we increase walk speed.

true

13

T/F: With the gait cycle, we start with more concentric activity, and then switch to eccentric activity towards the end of the cycle.

false, we go from eccentric to concentric

14

What percentage does initial contact consist of in the gait cycle?

0-2%

15

Where are the ground reaction forces for initial contact?

posterior to ankle
anterior to knee
slightly anterior to hip

16

When is the first double-limb support period?

loading response of stance

17

Where are GRFs in loading response?

posterior to knee
posterior to ankle
slightly anterior to hip

18

How long does loading last for?

from initial contact until the other foot is lifted for swing

19

What muscles are extremely important in the loading phase?

the knee extensors!! GRF is posterior to knee here, and KEs must eccentrically control this knee flexion

20

When is the second double stance phase?

preswing

21

What percentage of the gait cycle is loading?

0-10%

22

When does the first half of single limb support occur?

midstance

23

Where is the opposite limb when the stance limb is in midstance?

midswing

24

What is the position of the limb in early midstance, and then late midstance?

early = knee flexed, hip flexed
late = knee extended, hip extended

25

What two muscles make up 93% of the potential plantar flexor torque?

gastroc and soleus

26

What muscles preserve the heel rocker?

DFs

27

At what phase of gait are we in if the foot is in digigrade?

terminal stance

28

Describe the activity of the plantar flexors during gait cycle.

- most active in beginning during loading and through midstance to eccentrically control DF
- turn on slightly during preswing when the 2nd arc of plantar flexion occurs, but mostly passive recoil is used for push off (from the stretch they just got during DF)

29

What muscle markedly increases its activity in midstance to control pronation?

tib posterior

30

When during gait does PF internal torque peak?

at push off, then drops off