Flashcards in Forensic psychology Wk 11 Mod 12 Assessment of risk, dangerousness and recidivism Deck (15)
12. What is risk assessment?
Risk assessment is conducted by pscychol and psychs. They make decisions regarding risk and dangerousness attempts to predict future behaviour with a view to protecting public, staff, inmates and individual from self-harm.
12. What is the duty to warn and protect?
Psychols and psychs have a general duty to warn or protect people at risk of harm from patient or client.
12. Tarasoff Podder case
California Tatiana Tarasoff Podder offender Regent parents resulted in duty to protect.
psych must take active steps to protect the potential victim but not nec warn
12. What is APS code of ethics?
Australian Psychological Society.
Can disclose confidential information if
- where there is a legal obligation to do so
- there is an immediate and specified risk of harm to an identifiable person/s that can b averted only by disclosing information
12. Predicting Dangerousness
Involves using past behaviour to predict future behaviour. Relates to past dangerous or violent behaviour and the liklihood of similar in the future.
12. False Positive
Clinicians tend to over predict the likelihood of the dangerousness of a person
12. Activities involved in predicting dangerousness
- who will be violent/dangerous/ criminal
- under what conditions will an individual be violent/aggress/criminal? ie triggers
12. What triggers?
Some offenders only offend under influence of drugs or alcohol.
Conditions can be placed on release ie random drug testing.
12. Limitations of predictions:
1. limited no. of risk factors used to make predictions- risk prediction tools/instruments
2. Definitions of violence or dangerousness vary
3. Research design and participant samples... ie. results vary according to who sampled and where.. convicted/ accused or teenage/middle aged
4. Studies rarely done in conjunction with each other so results are rarely replicated
12. 2 types of risk prediction (mini)
Clinical and Structured approaches
Clinical Judgement - subjective based on knowledge of client
Statistical/empirical evidence prediction methods
12. Linear model for risk prediction
not the best but widely used to predict risk of dangerousness. Top questions, lead to lower options. Keep choosing options until you reach the answer at the bottom.
12. Clinical approaches
Hypothetico- deductive model
knowledge about previous behaviours and relevant theories used to predict future behaviour. Perform and exp, create or modify theory based on observation. Use the theory to make a prediction. Design an experiment to test the prediction.
12. Clinical approaches
Risk assessment model
allows for multi dimensional nature of violence (includes personality, social and polictical context).
12. Structure clinical approach
Combination of actuarial measures and clinically relevant variables(clinical judgement).
Clinical measures: Psychopathy checklist - PCL
Violence Risk Appraisal Guide - VRAG
Rapid Risk Assessment for Sexual Offender Recidivism -
Psych will come up with a score and use that with clinical judgement