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Flashcards in FIRST AID/ CPR Deck (24)
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0

WHAT ARE THE OBJECTIVES OF FIRST AID?

PREVENT FURTHER INJURY, INFECTION AND LOSS OF LIFE.

1

WHAT ARE THE METHODS OF CONTROLLING BLEEDING?

DIRECT PRESSURE, ELEVATION, PRESSURE POINTS, TOURNIQUET.

2

WHAT IS A PRESSURE POINT?

A POINT ON THE BODY WHERE A MAIN ARTERY LIES NEAR THE SKIN OVER A BONE.

3

WHAT ARE THE 11 PRINCIPAL PRESSURE POINTS?

SUPERFICIAL TEMPORAL ARTERY(TEMPLE) , FACIAL ARTERY(JAW) , COMMON CAROTID ARTERY(NECK) , SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY( COLLAR BONE) , BRACHIAL ARTERY( INNER UPPER ARM) , BRACHIAL ARTERY ( INNE ELBOW) , RADIAL/ ULNAR ARTERY (WRIST) , FEMORAL ARTERY ( UPPER THIGH) , ILIAC ARTERY (GROIN) , POPLITEAL ARTERY (KNEE) , ANTERIOR/POSTERIOR TIBIAL ARTERY (ANKLE).

4

WHAT IS A FIRST DEGREE BURN?

PRODUCES REDNESS, WARMTH, AND MILD PAIN.

5

WHAT IS A SECOND DEGREE BURN?

CAUSES RED BLISTERING SKIN, AND SEVERE PAIN.

6

WHAT IS A THIRD DEGREE BURN?

DESTROYS TISSUE, SKIN AND BONE IN SEVERE CASES, HOWEVER, SEVERE PAIN MAY BE ABSENT DUE TO NERVE ENDINGS BEING DESTROYED.

7

DESCRIBE THE TWO TYPES OF FRACTURES.

CLOSED/SIMPLE- BROKEN BONE WITHOUT A BREAK IN THE SKIN.
OPEN/ COMPOUND- BROKEN BONE WITH A BREAK IN THE SKIN AND POSSIBLE BONE PROTRUSION.

8

WHAT ARE SOME SYMPTOMS OF AN OBSTRUCTED AIRWAY?

INABILITY TO TALK, GASPING AND POINTING TO THROAT, EXAGGERATED BREATHING EFFORTS, AND SKIN TURNING BLUISH COLOR.

9

DESCRIBE HEAT EXHAUSTION.

A SERIOUS DISTURBANCE OF BLOOD FLOW TO THE BRAIN, HEART, AND LUNGS. THE SKIN IS COOL, MOIST, AND CLAMMY AND THE PUPILS ARE DILATED. BODY TEMPERATURE MAY BE NORMAL OR HIGH, WITH THE VICTIM USUALLY SWEATING PROFUSELY.

10

DESCRIBE HEAT STROKE.

A SERIOUS CONDITION CAUSED BY A BREAKDOWN OF THE SWEATING MECHANISM OF THE BODY. THE VICTIM IS UNABLE TO ELIMINATE EXCESSIVE BODY HEAT BUILDUP. SYMPTOMS MAY INCLUDE HOT AND/OR DRY SKIN, UNEVEN PUPIL DILATION, AND A WEAK, RAPID PULSE.

11

WHAT ARE THE THREE TYPES OF COLD WEATHER INJURIES?

HYPOTHERMIA, SUPERFICIAL FROSTBITE, AND DEEP FROSTBITE.

12

WHAT IS HYPOTHERMIA?

A GENERAL COOLING OF THE WHOLE BODY CAUSED BY EXPOSURE TO LOW OR RAPIDLY FALLING TEMPERATURE, COLD MOISTURE, SNOW OR ICE. THE VICTIM MAY APPEAR PALE AND UNCONSCIOUS, AND MAY BE TAKEN FOR DEAD. BREATHING IS SLOW AND SHALLOW, PULSE IS FAINT OR UNDETECTABLE. THE BODY TISSUES FEEL SEMI RIGID, AND THE ARMS AND LEGS MAY FEEL STIFF.

13

WHAT IS SUPERFICIAL FROSTBITE?

ICE CRYSTALS FORM IN THE UPPER LAYERS OF SKIN AFTER EXPOSURE TO TEMPERATURES OF 32 DEGREES OR LOWER.

14

DESCRIBE DEEP FROSTBITE.

ICE CRYSTALS FORM IN THE DEEPER TISSUES AFTER EXPOSURE TO TEMPERATURES OF 32 DEGREES OR LOWER.

15

WHAT IS SHOCK?

A LIFE THREATENING CONDITION WHEREBY THE BODY SUFFERS FROM INSUFFICIENT BLOOD FLOW THROUGHOUT THE BODY AS A RESULT OF SERIOUS INJURY OR ILNESS.

16

WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF SHOCK?

SEPTIC SHOCK, ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK, CARDIOGENIC SHOCK, HYPOVOLEMIC SHOCK, AND NEUROGENIC SHOCK.

17

WHAT IS SEPTIC SHOCK?

SHOCK CAUSED BY BACTERIA MULTIPLYING IN THE BLOOD STREAM AND RELEASING TOXINS. COMMON CAUSES OF THIS ARE PNEUMONIA, INTRA-ABDOMINAL INFECTIONS, AND MENINGITIS.

18

WHAT IS ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK?

A TYPE OF SEVERE HYPER SENSITIVITY OR ALLERGIC REACTION. CAUSES INCLUDE ALLERGY TO INSECT STINGS, MEDICINES OR FOODS.

19

WHAT IS CARDIOGENIC SHOCK?

WHEN THE HEART IS DAMAGED AND UNABLE TO SUPPLY SUFFICIENT BLOOD TO THE BODY.THIS CAN BE THE END RESULT OF A HEART ATTACK OR CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE.

20

WHAT IS HYPOVOLEMIC SHOCK?

SHOCK CAUSED BY SEVERE BLOOD AND FLUID LOSS , SUCH AS FROM TRAUMATIC BODILY INJURY, WHICH MAKES THE HEART UNABLE TO PUMP ENOUGH BLOOD TO THE BODY.

21

WHAT IS NEUROGENIC SHOCK?

SHOCK CAUSED BY A SPINAL CORD INJURY.

22

WHY DID THE STEPS OF CPR CHANGE FROM ABC TO CAB?

DUE TO THE RECOGNITION OF THE IMPORTANCE OF CHEST COMPRESSIONS. BREATH, AND RESPIRATORY RATE AND PULSE-DETECTION ARE DIFFICULT AND UNRELIABLE AS THEY ARE INFLUENCED BY CARDIAC ARREST, GASPING, AND INDIVIDUAL VICTIM CHARACTERISTICS.

23

WHAT ARE THE STEPS OF THE "SURVIVAL CHAIN?"

RECOGNITION/ACTIVATION OF CPR
CHEST COMPRESSIONS
AED/DEFIBRILLATOR
RAPID DEFIBRILLATION
EFFECTIVE ADVANCED LIFE SUPPORT(EMT'S, AMBULANCE)
INTEGRATED POST CARDIAC ARREST CARE