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1

the exchange of blood, gases, and fluids between the vessels and tissues and organ systems

perfusion

2

• Detect a weak peripheral pulse
• Measure a low blood pressure
• Magnifies pulsatile sounds

Doppler Ultrasonic stethoscope

3

• Elastic stockings
• Aid in maintaining external pressure on the muscles of lower extremities to promote venous return
• Measure calf for correct size
*prevents edema, fluid pulling down on ankles

Thromboembolic device (TED’s)

4

• Alternately inflates (10-15 sec) and deflates (45-60 sec)
• Decreases venous stasis by increasing venous return through deep veins of the legs
*helps prevent blood clots

Sequential compression device (SCD’s)

5

Which pulses do we check on a regular basis?

*apical
*radial
*dorsalis pedis

6

• Inspect the client’s neck while patient is at a 30-45 degree angle, pt in supine position
*turn head slightly

Jugular Venous Distension (JVD)

7

• Palpate only one at a time to avoid compromising arterial blood to brain
• Auscultate each for the presence
of a bruit

carotid artery

8

blowing, swishing sound indicating blood flow
turbulence. Normally, there is none

bruit

9

What do you inspect of the extremities?

• Color:
Pallor, erythema, cyanotic, mottled
• Moisture: Moist, Dry
• Nail beds: Color, Capillary refill
- normal is <3 seconds
• Temperature: Warm, Cool

10

4+ on a four-point scale for palpating pulses represents

bounding

11

3+ on a four-point scale for palpating pulses represents

full pulse, increased

12

2+ on a four-point scale for palpating pulses represents

expected/normal

13

1+ on a four-point scale for palpating pulses represents

diminished, barely palpable

14

0 on a four-point scale for palpating pulses represents

absent

15

 first heart sound
 systole
 louder at apex
 coincides with carotid pulse

S1-mitral, tricuspid

16

 second heart sound
 diastole
 louder at base
• Creates the lub-dub sound
• Note normal rate and rhythm

S2- aortic, pulmonic valves

17

factors affecting respiration include:

• Lifestyle
• Medications
• Age
• Body weight
• Environment
•Health status

18

Ventilation in excess of that required to eliminate carbon dioxide produced by cellular
metabolism

hyperventilation

19

Alveolar ventilation inadequate to meet the body’s oxygen demand or to eliminate sufficient carbon dioxide

hypoventilation

20

Inadequate tissue oxygenation at the cellular level

hypoxia

21

Blue discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes

cyanosis

22

what are the steps in oxygenation?

*ventilation
*perfusion
*diffusion

23

The process of moving gases into and out of the lungs

ventilation

24

The ability of the cardiovascular system to pump oxygenated blood to the tissues and return deoxygenated blood to the lungs

perfusion

25

Exchange of respiratory gases in the alveoli and capillaries

diffusion

26

average respiratory rate for infants?

About 30 breaths per minute

27

average respiratory rate for children (preschoolers)

About 25 breaths per minute

28

average respiratory rate for adults?

About 12-20 breaths per minute

29

Decreased level of oxygen in the blood

hypoxemia

30

Deficiency in amount of oxygen reaching the tissues

hypoxia