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This is reinforced in the parallel curriculum presented by the mass media. An the message that students get--from both the content and the form of education---is that women and men are different and unequal, that the inequality comes from differences, and that therefore, such inequality is justified

Hidden curriculum


Young boys struggle w/inconsistency b/w schools promotion of civility and the "warrior narrative" of masculinity.

Differential treatment


some opponents believed that bringing women and men together would have disastrous effects on both sexes. B/c the "minds of men and women are radically diff."



some worried that education men and women together would "--------" the collegiate curriculum, watering it down by forcing the inclusion of subjects and temperaments better omitted, slowing down pace, or otherwise reducing standards that would allow women to keep up.



G. Stanely Hall did what about co-education

warned about co-education, it would take away women's femininity and it would feminineize men and would cause homo-sexuality all in all "dilute" the attraction f the opposite sex


why do we go to school?

to manifest functions (i.e. gain skills/knowledge, be a better citizen, learn how to interact, become socialized...) which are INTENDED CONSEQUENCES


Is the hidden curriculum revolutionary?



Why, the hidden curriculum?

Status quo, social order, unintended outcomes/latent functions, teaching gender inequality, stressing gender inequality, stressing culture, class differentiation funding, reinforcing stereotypes and taught not to question, differential value given to subject matter


In kindergarden

Children start to understand what it means to be a boy/girl
Sep. kids by gender right away


Do teachers intend to treat children diff.?



Teachers unintended;
Girls vs. Boys in the classroom

boys receive more positive attention than girls do inn the classroom
boys are called on more often
boys allowed to speak out of turn
boys given more practical assistance


________ outnumbered ---------- by 5:2 ratio,; there were three times as many adult male characters as adult female characters; six times as many biographies of men as of women; and four times as many male fairy tales as female.

bot-centered stories and girl-centered stories


Rosanthai and Jacobson 1968

Pygmalion study



ID scores- told teachers that showed potential and and had good scores


Students that were determined to be "sputters" on avg

had an increase of more than 12 pts on their IQ score compared to a 8 pt increase on the rest of the students


1st and 2nd graders Students that were determined to be "sputters" on avg

20 pts more


What did the Pygmalion study theory

the self-fulfilling prophecy b/c the Sputters felt more capable and intelligent and TF performed accordingly


Differential treatment: AAUW defines diff treatment in school

as a major part of declining self-esteem in girls


As ----- reach middle school ------- plumits and are valued for -------- not ----------

appearance not talents


Middle school is what kind of environment for girls

sexual hostile


what are the outcome for girls?

self-esteem drops
not pretty, TF work on skills
eating disorders
victims of bullying which is a collective outcome


what is the differential treatments that boys receive and what are the outcomes of these?

What happens if boys are good in school?

struggle w/inconsistency b/w schools
the warmer narrative of masculinity
report cards are worse than girls
drop out rates are higher
there is a disconnect b/w school and masculinity

Than their masculinity is questioned


"-----" alos takes place with in a sexually hostile environment

chilly classroom climate


No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance

the education act of 1972 contained ----- which abolished sex discrimination in public schools and has since been taken to mandate the women's sports be funded equally with men's (excluding football, which is extraordinarily expensive for schools to fund and which virtually no women are able to play)

Title IX


The sissification of literature and life (1927)

literature is being emasculated by being written mainly for women and largely by women. Th majority of men in this country, having been co-educated by women teachers, are unaware of this


Gender disparities are both

numerical and experimental


in 1982 women began to surpass men in college, today --% of college students are female

3 women for every 2 men i community college



women have now outnumbered men in

social and behavioral science in about by 3 to 1 and make up 20% of all students in engineering and are half in biology an business


a difference that appears to be about gender but is actually about something else, in this case class or race

deceptive distinction


the shortage of male college students is also actualy a shortage of nonwhite males