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1

evolution is

change in biological entitieis over tme

2

scala naturae

bio before evolution
- 'chain of being'
- ladder of increasing complexity

3

linnean biological classificiation

- complex organisms, and clusters of organisms of different complexities (ex cluster dog like things)

- grouping species into larger groups=taxa

"hierarchal nested"

4

order of hierarchy that linnean proposed

species
genus
family
order
class
phylum
kingdom

5

fossils

rocks of diff age in same location, contain different species

- certain rocks produced by sediments laid down

6

what is extinction of fossils

many species preserved in in fossils no longer seen on earth

7

evolution of fossils- Lamarck

forms come into being by modification of existing forms (evolution)

- progressions
(a evolve from B)

8

lamarcks 2 ideas

pattern

process/mechanism

9

lamarcks pattern

each lineage progresses toward greater complexitiy
- directional change over lineages, change to become more complex (bot random)

10

process/mechanism-- lamarck

use and disuse
- ex: use body part over life, becomes more developped
- true for humans/animals

- lamarckism

- change is consequence of little changes of other ex:giraffes over lifetime (individuals evolve)

11

what is lamarckism?

characters acquired over life time will be passed on to next generation

12

2 main ideas of Darwin

- pattern of evolution
- process of evolution

13

darwin idea of pattern of evolution

- Living things united in a single branching tree of relationships
- single origin of life
- evolutionary change, process of branching continues
" tree of life"

- decent with modification

14

what is decent with modification

species a and b are similar because of their shared history prior to last common ancestor


- also differ because of independent changes in lineages after divergences from last common ancestor

15

darwin idea about process of evolution

evolution occur primarily b/c of natural selection

- individuals of species belong to populations

16

3 parts to natural selection

1) heritable variation
2) excess production
3) differential success (Fitness)

17

what is heriable variable (natural selection)

o individuals in a population are born in many traits/features

o many traits can be passed on from parents to offspring (i.e. are heritable)

18

what is excess production
(natural selection)

o in any population, more offspring are produced than ‘needed’ to maintain it (usually many more)

o when resources are limited, many of the offspring do not survive (or don’t reproduce successfully)

19

what is differential success/fitness

(natural selection)

- struggle for existence

some individuals have advantage b/c of differing traits
-- will produce more viable offspring on average

20

how do favourable traits increase in frequency

heritable traits that helped individuals to inc fitness on avg tend to be PASSED On to those offsprin g

- traits tend to become more frequent in population (with time)
- unfavourable traits become less frequent

21

artificial selection

overtime breeders have created different distinct breeds of organisms
- "selective breeding"

22

adaptive evolution

examples

- adaptation

- organisms become well suited to environment
- ex: giraffe become adapted to browsing
- fox coat thickness, ear size, colour adapts to environment

23

what is selective pressure?

variant that arises in one population

gives greater increase in chance to survive to reproduce

24

warfarin in rates what does it do

- resistance between it has particular gene variant at specific locus at one genome

- interferes with synthesis of blood clotting agents (bleeding= death)

- mutation in gene

- warfarin normally efficient at blocking recycling, if rat has variant of protein able to recycle vitamine K better if injected with warfarin

25

what does natural selection need

variation to act on

26

natural selection is contingent on

time and place

- adaptation to particular environment

27

**soapberry bugs- what happened

- change in environment, average length of beak decreased over time

28

conclusion of soapberry bug experiment

there is directional selection

- beak length/variants are heritable

29

what is homology

similarity resulting from common ancestory

30

standard anatomical homologies

suggests?

- structures different functions, common form

- similarities in anatomy in diff. species suggest inherited part of that anatomy from common ancestor