Embryology (Part 2) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Embryology (Part 2) Deck (186)
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1

Embryologically, the left sixth aortic arch gives rise to which two structures (C)?

Proximal pulmonary arteries and ductus arteriosus

2

Embryologically, which aortic arch gives rise to the blood vessels (A)? Name these vessels.

3rd aortic arch; carotid arteries

3

During fetal erythropoiesis, when does the yolk sac produce fetal RBCs?

Weeks 3-8

4

During fetal erythropoiesis, when does the liver produce fetal RBCs?

Weeks 6-30

5

During fetal erythropoiesis, when does the spleen produce fetal RBCs?

Weeks 9-28

6

During fetal erythropoiesis, when does the bone marrow start producing fetal RBCs?

Week 28

7

During fetal erythropoiesis, what is the first location to produce fetal RBCs during development?

The yolk sac

8

Fetal erythropoiesis occurs in what organs during development?

The yolk sac, the liver, the spleen, and the bone marrow

9

What is the order in which organs become the primary site of fetal erythropoiesis?

The Yolk sac, Liver, Spleen, Bone marrow (remember: Young Liver Synthesizes Blood)

10

What is the composition of fetal hemoglobin?

α2γ2

11

What is the composition of adult hemoglobin?

α2β2

12

Fetal hemoglobin and adult hemoglobin share the same ____ chains. However, they differ in that fetal hemoglobin contains ____ chains, whereas adult hemoglobin contains ____ chains.

α; γ; β

13

What is the approximate oxygen saturation in the umbilical vein?

0.8

14

Name the three important shunts in the fetal circulation.

Foramen ovale, ductus arteriosus, and ductus venosus

15

What structure shunts blood from the right atrium to the left atrium in the fetal circulation?

The foramen ovale

16

What structure shunts blood from the pulmonary artery to the aorta in the fetal circulation?

The ductus arteriosus

17

What structure connects the umbilical vein with the inferior vena cava in the fetal circulation?

The ductus venosus

18

Well-oxygenated blood from the inferior vena cava mainly passes through which shunt to reach the brain of the fetus?

The foramen ovale

19

Less-oxygenated blood from the superior vena cava mainly passes through which shunt to reach the lower limbs of the fetus?

The ductus arteriosus

20

The _____ shunts well-oxygenated blood from the placenta to the IVC to bypass the _____ in the fetus.

ductus venosus; liver

21

During fetal life, is the pressure in the right atrium or the left atrium higher?

The right atrium

22

At birth, after the neonate takes a breath, is the pressure in the right atrium or the left atrium higher?

The left atrium

23

With an infant's first breath, the resistance in the pulmonary vasculature _____ (increases/decreases), which causes ______ (increased/decreased) left atrial pressure as compared with the right side. This change in the pressure gradient causes the closure of the ______.

decreases; increased; foramen ovale

24

After a neonate has started breathing, the oxygen saturation in the blood ______ (increases/decreases), thereby leading to a(n) ______ (increase/decrease) in the synthesis of prostaglandins, which is responsible for the closure of the ______.

Increases; decrease; ductus arteriosus

25

The _____ closes in response to alterations in the pressure gradient across the atria, whereas the _____ closes in response to decreased prostaglandin synthesis.

foramen ovale; ductus arteriosus

26

What is the drug of choice to constrict the ductus arteriosus in an infant with patent ductus arteriosus?

Indomethacin

27

Certain drugs can be given to the newborn that affect the patency of the ductus arteriosus. The drug ______ can close the ductus arteriosus. By contrast, ______ can keep the ductus arteriosus open.

Indomethacin; prostaglandins

28

The umbilical vein in the fetus becomes what structure in the adult?

The ligamentum teres hepatis

29

The ligamentum teres hepatis is contained in what structure in the adult?

The falciform ligament

30

The umbilical arteries in the fetus become what structures in the adult?

The mediaL umbilical ligaments come from the umbiLical arteries