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Flashcards in EENT Deck (110)
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1

how long should an eye be patched following corneal abrasion?

no longer than 24 hours. daily follow up on all abrasions

2

orbital floor is composed of ...

maxillary, palatine, and zygomatic bones

3

why don't you give patient's topical anesthetic for corneal abrasion?

retards healing

4

what type of antibiotic ointment is used in corneal abrasion

gentamicin, sulfacetamide

5

how is a corneal ulcer described?

dense corneal infiltrate with overlying epithelial defect

6

all corneal ulcer go to the ....

ophthalmologist

7

patients with retinal detachment should be placed in what position?

supine, with head turned to the side of the detachment while emergency consult to ophtham is confirmed

8

will the intraocular pressure be affected with retinal detachment?

no

9

Leading cause of IRREVERSIBLE central visual loss

macular degeneration

10

gradual loss of central vision, drusen deposits are found in Bruch membrane, and neovascular degeneration is seen on exam. Name the disorder.

Macular degeneration

11

Tx macular degeneration

laser therapy, injections of monoclonal antibody and vitamins

12

ganglionic death leads to optic atrophy and pale retina, but the perifoveal atrophy is bright red

central retinal artery occlusion

13

Retinal artery occlusion is an emergency, what measures can be done, while waiting for ophtham to arrive?

place patent is recumbent position and do ocular massage

14

chloroquine and phenothiazine are known to cause what optic disorder?

Macular degeneration

15

Central retinal vein occlusion usually occurs secondary to what other medical disorders?

DM, hyperlipidemia, glaucoma

16

Central retinal vein occlusion is painless blurred vision or vision loss, similar to central retinal artery occlusion and retinal detachment. What is the buzz word associated with exam?

afferent pupillary detect, optic disc swelling and blood/thunder retina (due to dilated veins, hemorrhage and edema)

17

CRVO and CRAO are usually caused by a

embolic or thrombotic event

18

cataracts can form due to age and what other conditions

steroid use, trauma, dm, sun exposure and statins

19

what type of glaucoma is an emergency? Angle-closure glaucoma or open angle glaucoma

Angle-closure glaucoma.

20

painful eye, loss of vision, steamy cornea, and fixed mid dilated pupil and tear. This is most likely?

Angle-closure glaucoma

21

what visual fields are affected in open angle glaucoma?

peripheral visual fields and increased cup to disc ratio

22

Is IOP increased in both open and closed glaucoma

yes

23

Treatment for emergent angle-closure glaucoma

refer, start IV (carbonic anhydrase inhibitor) acetazolamide, topical beta blocker and osmotic diuresis (mannitol)

24

tx for open angle glaucoma

this is a chronic condition, use topical meds to decease IOP by decreasing aqueous production (b-blocker or acetazolamide and prostaglandin like med to increase outflow.

25

prostaglandin like medications that help outflow of aqueous humor?

cholinergic agents, epinephrine, alpha agonist

26

what disorder is orbital cellulitis primary associated with?

sinusitis, but dental infections and trauma can also be part of the etiology

27

Bacteria responsible for orbital cellulitis?

same as otitis media...strep pneumo, staph aureus, h flu and gram negative bacteria

28

tx for orbital cellulitis?

medical emergency requiring hospitalization and IV antibiotics

29

Difference between internal and external hordeolum?

internal is pustule within the meibomian gland and external is an infection of the glands of Moll or Zeis located near the palpebral margin

30

Viral conjunctivitis is usually caused by?

adenovirus 3, 8, and 19