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Flashcards in DNA Analysis Deck (65)
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1

What was the first DNA fingerprinting method?

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP)

2

Who created RFLP and how?

Alec Jeffreys was searching for disease DNA markers and attempted to use it as personal identification.

3

Uses of DNA evidence analysis (6)

Criminal and civil cases
Find missing persons
Establish paternity
Medical diagnostics
Identifying the dead
Rape cases

4

DNA Evidence Sources (6)

Blood (WBCs)
Semen
Saliva (cheek cells)
Hair (root follicle)
Teeth (root and nerve)
Feces

5

Where does DNA survive the longest in the body?

In the root and nerve of the teeth

6

Cell

The smallest unit of life

7

The two organelles in animal cells that contain DNA

The nucleus
Mitochondrion

8

Nucleus

The brain of the cell in the form of chromosomes inherited from parents

9

Mitochondrion DNA

mtDNA; Inherited from the mother; can get more DNA from a blood sample and it doesn't change between generations

10

All cells contain DNA except...

Red blood cells

11

Functions of DNA (2)

1. Transmits information from one generation of cells to the next
2. Provides the information for the synthesis of proteins necessary for cellular function

12

Chromosomes

Where genetic information is organized

13

How many pairs of chromosomes are in most humans?

23 pairs

14

How many autosomal chromosomes?

22 pairs, the last pair are sex chromosomes (XX/XY)

15

Genes

The blueprint for a specific type of protein or RNA in the body; information blocks of characteristics or traits

16

Where are genes? How many?

Hundreds of thousands in each chromosome

17

Locus

A position that a gene is present at

18

Alleles

Different versions of the same gene

19

Genotype

Genetic composition of an organism, as opposed to its physical appearance (ie. the combination of alleles it possesses)

20

Phenotype

Characteristics, both externally visible and physiological, of an organism determined by its genes, modified by the environment

21

Diploid

Containing pairs of chromosomes (humans)

22

Homozygous

A gene pair of the two same alleles (AA)

23

Heterozygous

A gene pair of two different alleles (AO)

24

Dominant

Allele that is expressed in the phenotype of a heterozygous; if two forms are present, the allele that is actually expressed is dominant

25

Recessive

Allele that is not expressed in the phenotype when two different alleles are present in the cells of an organism; only appears with double recessive

26

Each chromosome is DNA, or a...

single polymeric molecule

27

Nucleic acids

Organic substance whose molecules consist of many nucleotides linked in a long chain; has a conserved general structure

28

Nucleic acid structure (3)

Phosphate group
5 carbon sugar (either ribose or deoxyribose)
Nitrogenous base

29

DNA Structure (3)

4 nucleotides
Sugar-phosphate repeating to make the backbone
Bases encoding the information stuck out from the backbone

30

Polymer

Substance that has a molecular structure consisting mostly of a large number of similar units bonded together (DNA)