Flashcards in DNA Analysis Deck (65)
What was the first DNA fingerprinting method?
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP)
Who created RFLP and how?
Alec Jeffreys was searching for disease DNA markers and attempted to use it as personal identification.
Uses of DNA evidence analysis (6)
Criminal and civil cases
Find missing persons
Identifying the dead
DNA Evidence Sources (6)
Saliva (cheek cells)
Hair (root follicle)
Teeth (root and nerve)
Where does DNA survive the longest in the body?
In the root and nerve of the teeth
The smallest unit of life
The two organelles in animal cells that contain DNA
The brain of the cell in the form of chromosomes inherited from parents
mtDNA; Inherited from the mother; can get more DNA from a blood sample and it doesn't change between generations
All cells contain DNA except...
Red blood cells
Functions of DNA (2)
1. Transmits information from one generation of cells to the next
2. Provides the information for the synthesis of proteins necessary for cellular function
Where genetic information is organized
How many pairs of chromosomes are in most humans?
How many autosomal chromosomes?
22 pairs, the last pair are sex chromosomes (XX/XY)
The blueprint for a specific type of protein or RNA in the body; information blocks of characteristics or traits
Where are genes? How many?
Hundreds of thousands in each chromosome
A position that a gene is present at
Different versions of the same gene
Genetic composition of an organism, as opposed to its physical appearance (ie. the combination of alleles it possesses)
Characteristics, both externally visible and physiological, of an organism determined by its genes, modified by the environment
Containing pairs of chromosomes (humans)
A gene pair of the two same alleles (AA)
A gene pair of two different alleles (AO)
Allele that is expressed in the phenotype of a heterozygous; if two forms are present, the allele that is actually expressed is dominant
Allele that is not expressed in the phenotype when two different alleles are present in the cells of an organism; only appears with double recessive
Each chromosome is DNA, or a...
single polymeric molecule
Organic substance whose molecules consist of many nucleotides linked in a long chain; has a conserved general structure
Nucleic acid structure (3)
5 carbon sugar (either ribose or deoxyribose)
DNA Structure (3)
Sugar-phosphate repeating to make the backbone
Bases encoding the information stuck out from the backbone