Flashcards in Correlational Studies Deck (23)

Loading flashcards...

1

##
True or False

This is an example of a chi square test; 2 anesthetics are compared, where the individual only receives one injection (data is presented in a "contingency table"

### True

2

## You can obtain the expected values of the data in a contingency table by taking the ________ of numbers in the cells and multiplying it by the ______ number

###
probability

total

3

## Once we have the observed and expected frequencies for each cell in a contingency test, we can look at the __________ and see if it could have occurred by ______

###
difference

chance

4

##
True or False

A contingency test is a family of curves depending on the sample size/number of variables

### False; chi-square test

5

## When calculating ____ _____ you take the observed value - expected value and square, then divide by the expected

### chi square

6

## The bigger the number of chi square the ______ the difference is

### bigger

7

## Chi-square assumptions include, both groups are _______, composed of _______ or _____ data, the categories are _______ exclusive (either a yes or no), and all expected frequencies are greater than or equal to _____

###
independent

nominal

ordinal

mutually

5

8

## ________ refers to how consistent or reproducible observations or measurements are

### reliability

9

##
True or False

An example of intra-reliability is two different examiners on the same day

###
False; that is an example of inter-relaibility

intra-reliability is where it is one examiner on different days

10

## Reliability coefficients include ____-____ correlation and, ______ and _____ kappa statistics

###
intra-class

weighted

simple

11

## Weighted kappa statistics involve _____ data (i.e. slightly off/way off/progressive scale)

### ordinal

12

## Simple kappa statistics involve _____ data (i.e. yes or no)

### nominal

13

## Intra-class correlation involves _____ or _____ data (i.e. set scale; 1, 2, 3, 4 and must choose a point)

### interval or ratio

14

## A reliability coefficient of >_____ is considered excellent, and <____ is considered poor

###
0.75

0.40

15

## _______ refers to how closely your, observations, measurement instrument, or measurements are to the actual or accepted values ( i.e. the "gold standard")

### validity

16

## _______ tests indicate presence or absence of disease; they are usually compared to the "gold standard"

### diagnostic

17

## _______ answers the question of "if disease is present how often is the test positive"; it is proportional with the true diseases that is diagnosed as having disease by the test

### sensitivity

18

## If you have a high ________, then false negatives are low

### sensitivity

19

## _______ answers the question of "if disease is absent, how often is the test negative"; ability of test to correct identity those without disease; useful for ruling in presence of disease

### specificity

20

## If _______ is high, then false positives are low

### specificity

21

##
Pneumonic for remembering sensitivity vs specificity;

SPIN

SNOUT

###
high specificity rules IN disease

high sensitivity rules OUT disease

22

## Specificity and sensitivity are stable; and do _____ ____ depending on underlying disease, prevalence, and number of patients tested

### not change

23