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Flashcards in Correlational Studies Deck (23)
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1

True or False
This is an example of a chi square test; 2 anesthetics are compared, where the individual only receives one injection (data is presented in a "contingency table"

True

2

You can obtain the expected values of the data in a contingency table by taking the ________ of numbers in the cells and multiplying it by the ______ number

probability
total

3

Once we have the observed and expected frequencies for each cell in a contingency test, we can look at the __________ and see if it could have occurred by ______

difference
chance

4

True or False
A contingency test is a family of curves depending on the sample size/number of variables

False; chi-square test

5

When calculating ____ _____ you take the observed value - expected value and square, then divide by the expected

chi square

6

The bigger the number of chi square the ______ the difference is

bigger

7

Chi-square assumptions include, both groups are _______, composed of _______ or _____ data, the categories are _______ exclusive (either a yes or no), and all expected frequencies are greater than or equal to _____

independent
nominal
ordinal
mutually
5

8

________ refers to how consistent or reproducible observations or measurements are

reliability

9

True or False
An example of intra-reliability is two different examiners on the same day

False; that is an example of inter-relaibility
intra-reliability is where it is one examiner on different days

10

Reliability coefficients include ____-____ correlation and, ______ and _____ kappa statistics

intra-class
weighted
simple

11

Weighted kappa statistics involve _____ data (i.e. slightly off/way off/progressive scale)

ordinal

12

Simple kappa statistics involve _____ data (i.e. yes or no)

nominal

13

Intra-class correlation involves _____ or _____ data (i.e. set scale; 1, 2, 3, 4 and must choose a point)

interval or ratio

14

A reliability coefficient of >_____ is considered excellent, and <____ is considered poor

0.75
0.40

15

_______ refers to how closely your, observations, measurement instrument, or measurements are to the actual or accepted values ( i.e. the "gold standard")

validity

16

_______ tests indicate presence or absence of disease; they are usually compared to the "gold standard"

diagnostic

17

_______ answers the question of "if disease is present how often is the test positive"; it is proportional with the true diseases that is diagnosed as having disease by the test

sensitivity

18

If you have a high ________, then false negatives are low

sensitivity

19

_______ answers the question of "if disease is absent, how often is the test negative"; ability of test to correct identity those without disease; useful for ruling in presence of disease

specificity

20

If _______ is high, then false positives are low

specificity

21

Pneumonic for remembering sensitivity vs specificity;
SPIN
SNOUT

high specificity rules IN disease
high sensitivity rules OUT disease

22

Specificity and sensitivity are stable; and do _____ ____ depending on underlying disease, prevalence, and number of patients tested

not change

23

______ is the portion of results that agrees with the "gold standard"

accuracy