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Y2 LCRS 1 - RDA Aryan > Child development > Flashcards

Flashcards in Child development Deck (14)
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1

Define development

Complex interplay between somatic and neurologic transformations psychosocial and environmental influences.

2

When does most of the development happen in a person

Most of the changes happen antenatally:

Organogenesis - most vulnerable = first 3 months of life
Potential insult can last for life.
Foetal programming

3

What are the four main domains of development?

Cognitive
Gross motor skills (walking, sitting , running)
Fine motor skills (use of hands)
Social skills (speech and language, understanding)

4

What are developmental milestones? Describe some

Stages in each of the four domains a child should be at by a certain age. Examples:
Gross motor: Child can sit by 6 months, by 9 months they can start crawling, around a year the child can walk.
Social skills: First start to say things at 9-12 months old. At two years old they can start to make phrases.
Cognitive: Object permanence exists at 9 months - babies like to play peek-a-boo. 9 months old they start having separation anxiety.
Fine motor: At 2 months they realise their hands are theirs; 3 months the child can start knocking things together.

So if a parent comes in a says their children can't walk at 2 years old you should be worried.

5

What are the commonly used assessment tools?

Standardised tests
Schedule of growing skills
A bunch of developmental scales

6

What are patterns of abnormal development?

Regression - is a sever sign suggests autism
Slow, steady, plateau or regression of development.

7

How do you evaluate the child with abnormal development?

History
- parental anxiety (antenatal history)
- birth history
- family history

PMHX
- Developmental history
- Current skills

Examination
- Developmental assessment + general and neurological examination
- Investigations - as appropriate

8

What are the different types of developmental delays?

Developmental delay
- Global (all 4 domains)
- Specific (individual domains)

Causes:
Perinatal
Prenatal
Postnatal

9

What are some postnatal factors causing developmental delay?

Environmental-social issues
Chronic illness
Social depravation
Hearing loss
Lack of stimulation

10

What are some causes of global delay?

Chromosomal abnormalities
Metabolic
Antenatal and perniatal factors
Environmental-social issues
Chronic illness

11

What are causes of languages delay?

Hearing loss
ASD (Autism spectrum disorder)
Learning disability
Lack of stimulation

12

What are the principles of management?

- Maximise mobility
- Minimise discomfort
- Promote speech and language
- Promote social and emotional health

Other people need to help - physio, speech therapist, psychologist, occupational therapists = MULTIDISCIPLINARY TEAM required

13

Describe autism

Impairment of these 3 domains:
- Social interactions
- Communications
- Behaviour, interests, activities

They like to spin things - repetitive movements
Lining up of objects

14

Describe ADHD

- Inattention, increased distractability
- Poor impulse control
- Motor overactivity and motor restlessness

Anger, day dreaming, concentration and lashing out.