Flashcards in Child development Deck (14)
Complex interplay between somatic and neurologic transformations psychosocial and environmental influences.
When does most of the development happen in a person
Most of the changes happen antenatally:
Organogenesis - most vulnerable = first 3 months of life
Potential insult can last for life.
What are the four main domains of development?
Gross motor skills (walking, sitting , running)
Fine motor skills (use of hands)
Social skills (speech and language, understanding)
What are developmental milestones? Describe some
Stages in each of the four domains a child should be at by a certain age. Examples:
Gross motor: Child can sit by 6 months, by 9 months they can start crawling, around a year the child can walk.
Social skills: First start to say things at 9-12 months old. At two years old they can start to make phrases.
Cognitive: Object permanence exists at 9 months - babies like to play peek-a-boo. 9 months old they start having separation anxiety.
Fine motor: At 2 months they realise their hands are theirs; 3 months the child can start knocking things together.
So if a parent comes in a says their children can't walk at 2 years old you should be worried.
What are the commonly used assessment tools?
Schedule of growing skills
A bunch of developmental scales
What are patterns of abnormal development?
Regression - is a sever sign suggests autism
Slow, steady, plateau or regression of development.
How do you evaluate the child with abnormal development?
- parental anxiety (antenatal history)
- birth history
- family history
- Developmental history
- Current skills
- Developmental assessment + general and neurological examination
- Investigations - as appropriate
What are the different types of developmental delays?
- Global (all 4 domains)
- Specific (individual domains)
What are some postnatal factors causing developmental delay?
Lack of stimulation
What are some causes of global delay?
Antenatal and perniatal factors
What are causes of languages delay?
ASD (Autism spectrum disorder)
Lack of stimulation
What are the principles of management?
- Maximise mobility
- Minimise discomfort
- Promote speech and language
- Promote social and emotional health
Other people need to help - physio, speech therapist, psychologist, occupational therapists = MULTIDISCIPLINARY TEAM required
Impairment of these 3 domains:
- Social interactions
- Behaviour, interests, activities
They like to spin things - repetitive movements
Lining up of objects