Flashcards in Chapter 2 - The Biological Perspective Deck (51)
What is Wernicke's aphasia?
Can happen if damage occurs in Wernicke's area. Unable to understand or produce meaningful speech. Words will be pronounced correctly, but used incorrectly, they don't make sense together (word salad).
What is the auditory association area?
Transforms basic sounds into recognizable into recognizable information, such as recognizing a knock on a door, or the meaning of a word. Without this nothing has any meaning, it would be like everything said to you was gibberish.
What is visual agnosia?
When an individual fails to recognize some object, person or color yet has the ability to see and describe pieces or parts of some visual stimulus. For example a patient with visual agnosia was asked to recreate a picture they were given of a horse. The patient drew the mane, the legs, the heads, the eyes, etc. but they didn't know how they fit together. They were all drawn as if they were individual components.
What are nerves?
String-like bundles of axons and dendrites that come from the spinal cord. They carry information about the senses, skin, muscles, and organs to and from the spinal cord. The nerves in the Peripheral Nervous System have the ability to grow or reattach if severed or damaged.
What are neurons?
The basic cells of the nervous system, they send and receive messages within the nervous system.
What is Kluver-Bucy syndrome?
Damage to the amygdala may result in the inability to experience fear. This is demonstrated in the "Goats in the Lion Cage" experiment. Normally a goat would never want to be in the same cage as a lion, but if you cut out the amygdala of a goat it will walk right up to the lion, as it will be unable to recognize the lion as a threat.
What is the left hemisphere of the brain responsible for?
-Controls the right side of the body.
-Logical thought processes
-Analysis of detail
What is the central nervous system?
Describes the collection of neurons and glial cells in the brain and the spinal cord. It controls life-sustaining functions and all thought, emotion and behavior. Damage to the CNS is irreversible.
What is the hypothalamus?
Part of the limbic system. The hypothalamus is responsible for many things:
-Regulation body temperature
-Monitoring thirst and hunger
-Sleeping and waking
-Autonomic Nervous system and fight-or-flight
What is the limbic system?
Primitive or animal brain. Associated with emotions, motivational drives (primitive motivations such as hunger, thirst, sex etc.) memory and learning.
What parts of the neuron are responsible for sending messages to other cells?
-Synaptic Knob: Rounded areas on the ends of axons
-Synaptic Vesicles: Sack-like structure inside knob containing neurotransmitters
-Synapse or Synaptic Gap: Space between axon terminals of one cell & dendrites or surface of next cell
-Receptor Sites: Holes in surface of dendrites or muscle and gland cells, which are shaped to fit only certain neurotransmitters.
What is neuroscience?
Neuroscience is the study of the structure and function of neurons, nerves and their relationship to behavior and learning.
What is the hindbrain?
Also known as the brainstem, it's the oldest part of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord enters the skull. Responsible for automatic survival functions. Damage to the hindbrain means death.
What is the Occipital lobe?
Part of the cortex. Primarily responsible for controlling vision.
What is the peripheral nervous system?
Describes the nerves and neurons located throughout the body, minus the brain and the spinal cord. Separate from the central nervous system, damage to the PNS can sometimes be fixed.
What is the frontal lobe?
Part of the cortex, the frontal lobe is responsible for personality, attention, decision making, speech and judgment.
What is the motor cortex?
Part of the frontal lobe, responsible for sending motor commands to the muscles of the somatic nervous system.
What are the methods for studying the brain?
Deep Lesioning - Insertion of thin wire into the brain, sending electrical current to destroy brain cells at the tip of the wire.
Electrical Simulation of Brain (ESB) - Mild electrical current causes neurons to react as if they had received a message.
Human Brain Damage - Stroke, etc.
EEG - Records electrical activity just below the surface
CT Scan - Computer controlled X-rays
MRI - Radio waves and magnetic fields
PET Scan - Injection of a radioactive sugar
fMRI - Realtime video MRI
What is the primary visual cortex?
Part of the occipital lobe, responsible for changing electrical signals from the eyes into basic visual sensations (lights, lines, colors, textures). Without the primary visual cortex, you'll be blind.
What are agonists and antagonists?
Agonists are medications that mimic or enhance neurotransmitters effect on the receptor site of the next cell. Morphine is an agonist.
Antagonists are medications that block or reduce cell's response to action of other chemicals or neurotransmitters. Cocaine is an antagonist.
What is the temporal lobe?
Part of the cortex, responsible for processing hearing and meaningful speech.
Describe a reflex response to touching a flame.
Information is carried from the skin receptors along a sensory neuron to the spinal cord. From here it is passed via interneurons to motor neurons that lead back to muscles in the hand and arm. Because this reflex involves only the spinal cord, the hand jerks away from the candle flame even before the information about the event has reached the brain, causing the experience of pain.
What is the hippocampus?
Part of the limbic system. The hippocampus is involved in the formation of long-term memories (declarative). Henry M. was an example of a damaged hippocampus, he was unable to form new declarative memories.
What is the corpus callosum?
A thick band of neurons that connect the two hemispheres of the cortex.
What is the reticular formation?
A nerve network in the brainstem. Arouses the cortex so it's ready to process information. Responsible for selective attention. Damage to the reticular formation can result in a coma.
How many neurons are in a typical brain?
About 100 billion, however your body does not produce more, the neurons you are born with are the only ones you get.
What is the somatic nervous system?
A division of the PNS that controls voluntary movements of skeletal muscles. It controls sensory and motor pathways.
What are the functions of glial cells?
-Provide support for neurons to grow on and around (kind of like scaffolding)
-Clean up waste products & dead neurons
-Make up 90% of the cells in your body
-Your body produces new glial cells, unlike neurons,
What is the medulla?
Part of the hindbrain. Controls respiration, heart rate, and blood pressure. Large amounts of alcohol, heroin or depressant drugs can suppress function and lead to death.