Chapter 13- On-going Solvency Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13- On-going Solvency Deck (37)
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Describe the purpose for analysing on-going solvency? (6)

• One of the primary roles of the HAF is to ensure that the life insurance office remains solvent

• Additionally policyholder reasonable expectations (PRE) needs to be satisfied for with-profit policies

• Exposures to risks that have not been explained to some policyholders will create probabilities of not meeting PRE
o E.g. investment policies that differs significantly from similar companies

• The capital requirements cannot simply be assessed by considering current assets and liabilities

• The need for capital is driven by the tails of the loss distribution from all the risks borne by the company as well as the requirement to fund the on-going business strategy

• This requires the projection of on-going solvency for the company that allows appropriately for the size and probability of downside risk and capital need to support new business strategy


List the various needs for capital? (8)

• Providing protection against adverse experience
• Funding new business
• Support a riskier investment strategy
• Funding overheads and development costs
• Acquiring companies and blocks of business
• Satisfying solvency valuation requirements
• Supporting with-profit bonuses and smoothing
• Provide day-to-day working capital


List the reasons for projecting solvency? (4)

• Assess impact of Planning & business strategy decisions
o E.g. NBS (and hence volume of new business) supportable by available capital
o Funding plans are put in place where available capital is insufficient

• Preparing run-off plans for funds
o especially with-profits funds that are closed or in decline

• Estimate the pattern of capital releases to shareholders
o  to assess cost of capital in calculating EV

• (Risk management) SAM  solvency projections required under ORSA


Describe the chrateristics of assets to be regarded as a source of capital? (4)

• For the purposes of demonstrating solvency capital is only allowed for to the extent that it is available to be transferred to the policyholder fund should a shortfall arise in adverse circumstances and in extreme event to meet policyholder liabilities

• Funds that are available but rank equally to the claims of the policyholder would not constitute capital

• Retained earnings or subordinated debt to the interests of the policyholders could be regarded as capital

• Funds that could be called up in the future if needed could also be regarded as capital (ancillary own funds)


List methods of raising capital? (4)

• Further issue of ordinary shares

• Preference shares and loan stocks are discouraged in practice

• The registrar has however recently allowed hybrid debt that is subordinated to the interests of the policyholder

• Under SAM preference shares and hybrid debt will be subject to tiering depending on the quality of the instrument


Define economic capital, required economic capital, available economic capital and methods of calculating economic capital? (4)

• Internal assessment of the value of assets required in excess of liabilities so that
o claims can be met with a high degree of certainty when they fall due
o (allowing for [all risks] and the [company’s ongoing business strategy])

• Required economic capital:
o capital required to support a business with a certain probability of default
 ‘required’ from eco point of view, not regulatory
o ‘amount of eco cap business believes it needs’

• Available economic capital:
o excess of the value of the company’s assets over the value of its liabilities on a realistic or market-consistent basis
 closely related to EV
o ‘amount of eco cap the business actually has’

• Methods of calculating EC:
o Stochastic modelling
 Usually used to asses market and interest rate risks
• By projecting A&L’s across large # of real world inv scenarios
 Can also be used for other risks – if distribution of possible outcomes is available
• Eg use stochastic mortality to model longevity risk for annuities
o Stress tests:
 where the distribution of a particular risk is less clearly understood
 impact of inter-dependencies between risks needed
• to develop overall eco cap requirement


Describe Capital Rating Agencies? (3)

• Rating agencies have own measure of capital adequacy (together with other measures)

• Insurer wants to meet these requirements in order to achieve a certain credit rating

• Rating agencies’ capital adequacy standards may be considered a proxy for policyholders’ requirements


Describe regulatory capital? (5)?

• The purpose is to satisfy the regulator that a company has sufficient recourses to fulfil obligations to policyholders
• The calculation is designed to quantify the minimum level of excess assets than liabilities that will provide a cushion against extreme fluctuations in the experience in any variables used in statutory valuation
• The quantum of the cushion is set in such a manner that majority of the experience will result in a reduced cushion rather than a deficit under statutory valuation
• The regulatory capital is usually set with reference to a confidence interval that is the same for all companies
• The second function is to act as a regulatory warning system to possibly indicate the need for regulatory intervention and remedial action


Describe the 7 princals of financial soundness according of FS1?

• Insurers must hold own funds of sufficient quality and quantity to absorb unforeseen losses arising from the insurers activities
• The risk tolerance of the PA that informs minimum financial soundness requirements should be defined as the insurer maintaining regulatory solvency in face of a range of adverse scenarios
• The regulatory approach to calculating solvency capital is risk-based and forward looking
• In determining the value of eligible own funds, assets and liabilities should be valued on a market consistent basis unless specified otherwise
• The regulatory capital should address areas where the insurer is exposed and be proportionate to the nature scale and complexity of these risks
• The capital required should take into account diversification as well as correlations between risks
• The financial soundness requirements include trigger level of eligible own funds in which regulatory intervention will occur


Describe the valuation of the assets for the prudential supervision balance sheet? (4)

The value of assets mainly follows International financial reporting standards (IFRS) i.e. market consistent and economic approach. There are some minor deviations from IFRS to bring assets and liabilities closer to an economic approach

• Goodwill should be valued at zero

• Other intangible assets should only be included given that fair value can be paced on them

• Financial assets (derivatives, loans, debt and equity) must value at fair value

• Participations (i.e. subsidiaries) must be valued at
o Market value if listed
o Adjusted net asset value (NAV less goodwill and intagibles) if unlisted possible
o IFRS value otherwise


Describe the valuation of the liabilities for the prudential supervision balance sheet? (3)

• Liabilities consist of technical provisions and other liabilities

• Technical provisions are obligations to policyholders and beneficiaries and are calculated on a market consistent basis

• Other liabilities are non-insurance liabilities such a tax (current and deferred) which can also include creditors and subordinated debt (generally valued using IFRS fair value principles)


Describe basic own funds in the prudential supervision balance sheet? (2,7)

• Basic own funds are defined in market consistent balance sheet as excess assets over liabilities plus subordinated debt less any regulatory adjustments

• Regulatory adjustments are made for:
o Certain intangible assets
o Holdings in own shares
o Holding in own holding company shares
o Cash deposits in a bank in the same financial conglomerate
o Restrictive reserves
o Participation in financial and credit institutions
o Ring-fenced funds


Describe eligible own funds in the prudential supervision balance sheet? (6)

• Capital resources for financial soundness purposes are denoted own funds which consist of basic own funds and ancillary own funds

• Ancillary own funds are off-balance-sheet capital recourses that can be called upon to meet loses

• Available own funds are split into tiers based on strict criteria that take into account whether assets will be available immediately at full value

• Limits apply to various tiers in which they can be used to cover SCR and MCR requirements

• There are also limits on the own funds that can be used in demonstrating financial soundness

• The remaining own funds are denoted as eligible capital


Describe Solvency Capital Requirements? (4)

• SCR corresponds to the value-at-risk of basic own funds subject to a confidence level of 99.5% over a one year time horizon

• SCR can be calculated using a full or partial internal model or a standardised formula

• The standard formula is designed to be relatively simple to apply and is suitable for a company with typical risk exposures

• Simplifications in standardised formula make it less suitable for specialised insurers with complex risk


Describe the SCR calculation using a standardised formula (5)?

• The standardised formula follows a modular structure calibrated to south African market
• The main features of a standardised formula is that
o it is forward-looking and risk based that addresses key risks faced
o measures risk primarily through stress scenarios on assets and liabilities of the insurer
o Is proportional in that simplifications may be allowed
o Makes allowance for diversification between risks, risk mitigation instruments, future management actions and policyholder behaviour


List the modular composition of the standarised formula approach to calculate SCR? (4,7,7)

• The composition of SCR using the modular approach is as follows:
 Market
• Interest rate
• Equity
• Property
• Spread and Credit default
• Currency
• Concentration
• Illiquidity
• Adjses (look into this further?)
 Life underwriting
• Mortality
• Longevity
• Morbidity
• Lapse
• Expense
• Retrenchment
• catastrophe
o Operational risk
o Participation
o Adjustments


List the general structure of FSI 4? (6)

General Approach
o Treatment of new business
o Allowance for management actions
o Allowance for policyholder behaviour and risk mitigation
o Ring-fenced funds
o Simplifications
o Treatment of participations within the same sector


Describe the various risk caegories included in FSI 4.1, 4.2, 4.4? (3)

• FSI 4.1 Market risk capital requirement covers the risk of loss arising for movements in market variables that affect the assets and liabilities of the insurer including credit default risk

• FSI 4.2 Life underwriting capital requirements. This covers the risk from insurance obligations such as poor claims experience, expense over-runs and policy lapses

• FSI 4.4 Operational risk capital requirements. This covers the risk of loss for the failure of systems, internal control, people and external events


List examples of changes for interest rates shocks in standardised formula approach to calculate SCR? (5)

• The greater of proportional shifts in the nominal yield curve upwards or downwards by varying magnitudes by term

• The greater of proportional shifts in the real yield curve upwards or downwards by varying magnitudes by term (nominal yield remains the same)

• The shifts also need to result in absolute change of 1% and are subject to a minimum of 0% (ZLB)

• An increase in the swaptions implied volatility which varies by term

• Allowance for diversification of above risks


List examples of changes for Equity shocks in standardised formula approach to calculate SCR? (5)

• Instantaneous fall in the price of equities, with separate reduction in various categories:
o Global equities
o SA equities
o Infrastructure assets
o Other

(A systematic adjustment is also made to the above categories)

• Equity volatility risk i.e. an increase in equity volatility assumptions with increases dependent on terms to maturity as well as depending in whether the estimates are implied or observed


List examples of changes for Property shocks in standardised formula approach to calculate SCR? (1)

• Property risk an instantaneous decrease in the value of property (25%)


List examples of changes for currency shocks in standardised formula approach to calculate SCR? (1)

• Currency risk either a proportional instantaneous 50% rise or 30% fall of other currencies against the rand


List examples of changes for spread and deafult shocks in standardised formula approach to calculate SCR? (3)

o the sum of spread risk on interest bearing instruments i.e. change in value of instrument due to changes in credit spread

o Default risk complex calculation based on credit rating and exposure (done separately for rated exposures, non-rated exposures and cash held at banking institutions allowing for diversification)

o No diversification for above allowed


List examples of changes for concentration shocks in standardised formula approach to calculate SCR? (1)

• Concentrations risk i.e. based on exposure concentration and credit rating of counter parties


List examples of changes for Mortality shocks in standardised formula approach to calculate SCR? (1)

• Mortality risk a 15% permanent increase in mortality rate for all ages relative to best estimate for policies with a mortality benefit


List examples of changes for longevity shocks in standardised formula approach to calculate SCR? (1)

• Longevity risk a 10% permanent decrease in mortality for all ages relative to the best estimate and a permanent absolute decrease of 1% regarding future mortality improvements


List examples of changes for Morbidity/Medical shocks in standardised formula approach to calculate SCR? (5)

o Medical expense obligations
 A permanent absolute increase of 1% in claims inflations assumptions with a 5% permanent relative increase in claims rates
 If premiums are reviewable then a 5% decrease in the claims assumptions (resulting in lower premiums)

o Income protection and lumpsum disability benefits
 Increase of 25% in disability/morbidity assumptions relative to best estimate
 Decrease of 20% in disability/morbidity assumptions recovery rates where applicable

o No allowance for diversification


List examples of changes for Lapse shocks in standardised formula approach to calculate SCR? (3)

o Mass lapse scenario: immediate lapse of a percentage of homogenous groups (40% individual life and 70% for group). Total expenses are to remain constant for one year.

o Level stress scenario: the greater of a permanent reduction (per homogenous group) or permanent increase in assumed option exercise rates in all future years

o Combined stress scenario i.e. Mass lapse and an adjusted level stress scenario


List examples of changes for Expense shocks in standardised formula approach to calculate SCR? (2)

o An increase in 10% of all future expenses relative to best estimates
o The greater if an absolute addition of 2% or a proportional increase of expenses inflation by 20%


List examples of changes for Life catastrophe shocks in standardised formula approach to calculate SCR? (2)

o Additions to the mortality and morbidity rates for the next three months and then assumptions returning to best estimate values

o An allowance for diversification is permitted

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