Flashcards in Ch 4,5,6 Deck (31)
What is an Anecdotal Report? & what is it useful for?
A written description of events that occur during a specific time period (e.g. Lunch time) or an instructional period (e.g. Math class).
Target behavior is identified after recording anecdotal report.
Useful for analysis, not evaluation.
Permanent Product Recording
Recording tangible items or environmental effects that result from behavior (outcome recording)
May include audiotape, videotape, digital recording systems and written work samples.
May be used for: rate, duration or latency, topography and force.
What is event recording?
Recording the # of times a behavior occurs.
What is interval recording?
Recording of whether a behavior occurs during intervals of specified time period. An observation period is divided into a # of short intervals. Observer counts # of intervals when behavior occurs.
Continuous & high frequency behaviors
partial inter recording-behaviour doesn't consume entire interval.
Whole inter recording-behaviour consumes the entire interval.
What Is time sampling?
Recording of whether a behavior occurs at the end of an interval during a specified time period. An observational system in which observation period is divided into equal intervals; target behavior is observed @ end of each interval.
Usually intervals of minutes versus seconds.
Student observed only @ end of interval.
What is duration recording?
Recording the length of a time a behaviour occurs
What is latency recording?
Recording the amount of time it takes for a student to begin the targeted behaviour
Used With discrete behaviours.
Behaviours that aren't appropriate for event recording are high frequency (# of steps) or that last for long periods (tantruming). Advantages are Accurate and Easy to implement data collection system.
Both emphasize measures of time rather than instances of behavior.
Duration: average-behavior occurs regularly, measures length of time then finds avg..total-measures how long student engages in behavior during a limited time period.
Latency:length of time between instructional cue & info & initiation of behavior.
How do I calculate inter observer reliability?
Duration & Latency: short # min/Longer # min X100=%of agreements
Interval recording & time sampling:
Agreements/agreements+disagreementsX100=% of agreements
Presence of an observer which can alter both student and teacher behavior.
(This factor can affect data collection & interobserver agreement)
The tendency of observers to change the stringency w/which they apply operational def.
(Factor may affect data collection & interobserver agreement)
The more complex the system of data collection (including # of students & behavior) the more difficult it is to maintain consistency.
(Factor that may affect data collection & interobserver agreement)
The expectancy of a behavior change or no behavior change can impact how one interprets student responses.
(Factors that may affect data collection & interobserver agreement)
What are the basic elements of a line graph?
Abscissa (x-axis) shows how frequently data were collected during period of reported graph.
Ordinate (y-axis) identifies target behavior & kind of data being reported
Data point-small geometric figures are used to represent target behavior (circles,squares)
Data path- solid line connects data points.. Continuity break is placed on data path when there is a break in data.
Student identification- students name is placed in a box on lower right hand side of graph.
Additional graphing conditions
Conditions:phases of an intervention during which diff approaches, techniques, or materials are used.
Baseline data:current level of behavior prior to implement intervention.
Intervention:strategies or program implemented to alter target behavior.
# of occurrences observed in session are graphed after being added to the # of occurrences plotted for previous session.
Always demonstrates an upward curve.
Provides continuous line w/slope that indicates rate of responding
-steep slope=rapid responding
-gradual slope=slow responding
-straight line=no responding
The behavior targeted for change. (What is being measured)
The intervention being used to change behavior. (What is being manipulated)
Functional relation is said to exist if the dv (behavior) systematically changes in the manipulation of the iv.
Evaluate effects of intervention on a behaviour of an entire population or sample of a population.
Experimental group & control group
Statistical analysis to:
-verify diff in change in avg scores between 2 groups
-verify change is significant
-verify change is likely result of intervention & not chance
Single subjects Design
Identify effects of variables on a specific behavior of an individual.
Require repeated measures of the DV (behavior)
Atleast 1 measure of performance under intervention
-atleast 1 replication of intervention Whitsun design
Serve 2 function
1) descriptive function
Typically 5 data points are required for baseline or baseline stability, if no data point of baseline varies more than 50% from the mean baseline.
Can't be used to make confident assumption of a functional relation
Vulnerable to confounding variables
Doesn't provide for replication
Referred to as ABAB design
Involves sequential application & withdrawal of an intervention to verify the interventions effects on behavior
Demonstration of functional relation
Used when clear functional relation between IV & DV needs demonstration
Reversed target behavior when treatment withdrawn
When whit drawl treatment doesn't compromise ethics
Don't use when behavior is dangerous (aggressive/self injurious) & when target behavior isn't reversible
Changing Criterion Design
Evaluates effectiveness of an IV by demonstrating that behavior can be incrementally increased or decreased toward a terminal performance goal.
-intervention (divided into subphases, each requiring a closer approximation to terminal behavior)
It's the one that goes up all the way!
Helpful when Goal takes a long time to reach, helpful when working on behaviors that are being shaped, not appropriate when behavior must occur fast. It may not be appropriate to "hold back" an individual & his behavior change.
Treatment doesn't need to be withdrawn to show it's requisite functional relation w/target behavior.
Multiple Baseline Design
Allows for stimulaneous analysis of more than 1 DV.
Test effects of intervention on:
-2 or more behaviors w/1 student in single setting (across behavior)
-2 or more students exhibiting same behavior in a single setting (across students)
-2 or more settings in which 1 student is exhibiting the behavior (across settings)
Use when withdrawal designs aren't feasible due to ethical concerns, when there's more than 1 target behavior, setting or individual in need of treatment, When effects of IV can't be withdrawn or reversed.
Don't use when behaviors aren't functionally similar nor independent of 1 another, only 1 individual /setting/behavior selected, more than 1 intervention phase is desirable to demonstrate functional relation, when constraints on resources make implementation impossible.
Alternating Treatments Design
Allows comparison of effectiveness of more than one treatment or intervention strategy on a single DV.
Scheduling on interventions should be counterbalanced to control for carryover & sequencing events.
Fractionation of data
Use when want to determine relative effectiveness of more than 1 treatment on given behavior, when baseline data ate either unavailable, treatments are diff, when subjects discriminate conditions, when effects might obscure results.
Don't use when treatments might interact, when treatments produce slow behavior , when treatments need administration for continuous period of time to be effective, when difficulty counterbalancing various aspects of study.
Changing Condition Design
Used to investigate 2 or more interventions on a behavior.
Interventions administered sequentially
Used to investigate effect of 2 or more treatments on behavior of student.
Can't be used to determine effects if a functional relation between the DV & any of the tested IV.