ejection fraction will remain normal in _____ heart failure Decreased ejection fraction usually less than 50% in ____ heart failure
most common etiology of heart fialure is ____
coronary artery disease.
MC presenting sxs of heart failure are ____ and ____
dx exams for heart failure
ECG: arrhythmia, Q waves, ischemia, LVH stress test: assess exercise tolerance and risk stratification.
When do you order a CXR for a pt with heart failure?
to evaluation of dyspnea & rule out other etiologies of SOB (not to diagnose CHF).
what meds lower mortility in pts with HF?
ACE/ARBs (Ivabradine and Sacubitril-valsartan) BBs (carvedilol, bisoprolol, and metoprolol succinate)
What medications can you give to reduce sxs in heart failure?
Diuretics: fluid overload Digoxin: SOB
___ is used when the ejection fraction is below 35% in a pt with HF, those with sustained VT, and/or those with un-explained syncope to prevent a fatal arrhythmia.
Work up for pt in acute exacerbation of HF
ECHO ECG: arrhythmias, MI. BNP: distinguish btCHF exacerbation and COPD exacerbation as the cause of dyspnea. Cardiac enzymes: rule out MI
Treatment for acute exacerbation of CHF
LMNOP Loop diuretics Morphine Nitrates Oxygen Position (head up)/positive pressure
____ is a disease of the heart muscle associated with cardiac dysfunction that usually has no etiology
what are the 3 types of cardiomyopathy
Dilated Restrictive Hypertrophic
what dx test is used to differentiate bt Dilated, Restrictive, Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
what is the only way to definitively dx restrictive cardiomyopathy?
what is the tx of dilated cardiomyopathy?
same as CHF
what is the tx of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
BB, CCB ** no diuretics!
This heart defect is described as a systolic ejection murmur with a fixed wide splitting of S2
atrial septal defect
What may cause the The ductus arteriosus is kept open?
low oxygen environment prostaglandins.
machine like continuous murmur describes what heart defect?
PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS
what are the 4 components of tetralogy of fallot?
Right ventricular hypertrophy VSD Overriding aorta Right ventricular outflow obstruction
___ is a heart defect that sounds like a holosystolic murmur is heard that does not increase with respiration.
how do you dx HTN?
elevated BP >140/90 on two separate occasions
MC cause of secondary HTN
what labs should be ordered upon HTN dx
urine analysis urine micro albumin EKG CBC BMP lipid panel
What PE findings should you look for in a pt newly dx with HTN?
fundoscopy (hemorrhage or papilledema) thyroid assessment carotid bruit size and rhythm of heart crackles in lungs renal bruit pedal edema confusion or weak-ness
HTN tx for a pt w/ DM
HTN tx for a pt w/ CHF/Ischemia/CAD?
Beta blocker or ACE/ARB
HTN tx for a pt w/ Angina
Beta blocker or calcium channel blocker
HTN tx for a pt w/ BPH
HTN tx for a pt w/ Hyperthyroid