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Flashcards in Cardiology Deck (50)
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1

ejection fraction will remain normal in _____ heart failure Decreased ejection fraction usually less than 50% in ____ heart failure

diastolic systolic

2

most common etiology of heart fialure is ____

coronary artery disease.

3

MC presenting sxs of heart failure are ____ and ____

fatigue, SOB

4

dx exams for heart failure

ECG: arrhythmia, Q waves, ischemia, LVH stress test: assess exercise tolerance and risk stratification.

5

When do you order a CXR for a pt with heart failure?

to evaluation of dyspnea & rule out other etiologies of SOB (not to diagnose CHF).

6

what meds lower mortility in pts with HF?

ACE/ARBs (Ivabradine and Sacubitril-valsartan) BBs (carvedilol, bisoprolol, and metoprolol succinate)

7

What medications can you give to reduce sxs in heart failure?

Diuretics: fluid overload Digoxin: SOB

8

___ is used when the ejection fraction is below 35% in a pt with HF, those with sustained VT, and/or those with un-explained syncope to prevent a fatal arrhythmia.

ICD

9

Work up for pt in acute exacerbation of HF

ECHO ECG: arrhythmias, MI. BNP: distinguish btCHF exacerbation and COPD exacerbation as the cause of dyspnea. Cardiac enzymes: rule out MI

10

Treatment for acute exacerbation of CHF

LMNOP Loop diuretics Morphine Nitrates Oxygen Position (head up)/positive pressure

11

____ is a disease of the heart muscle associated with cardiac dysfunction that usually has no etiology

cardiomyopathy

12

what are the 3 types of cardiomyopathy

Dilated Restrictive Hypertrophic

13

what dx test is used to differentiate bt Dilated, Restrictive, Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

echocardiogram

14

what is the only way to definitively dx restrictive cardiomyopathy?

biopsy

15

what is the tx of dilated cardiomyopathy?

same as CHF

16

what is the tx of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?

BB, CCB ** no diuretics!

17

This heart defect is described as a systolic ejection murmur with a fixed wide splitting of S2

atrial septal defect

18

What may cause the The ductus arteriosus is kept open?

low oxygen environment prostaglandins.

19

machine like continuous murmur describes what heart defect?

PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS

20

what are the 4 components of tetralogy of fallot?

Right ventricular hypertrophy VSD Overriding aorta Right ventricular outflow obstruction

21

___ is a heart defect that sounds like a holosystolic murmur is heard that does not increase with respiration.

VSD

22

how do you dx HTN?

elevated BP >140/90 on two separate occasions

23

MC cause of secondary HTN

renal disease

24

what labs should be ordered upon HTN dx

urine analysis urine micro albumin EKG CBC BMP lipid panel

25

What PE findings should you look for in a pt newly dx with HTN?

fundoscopy (hemorrhage or papilledema) thyroid assessment carotid bruit size and rhythm of heart crackles in lungs renal bruit pedal edema confusion or weak-ness

26

HTN tx for a pt w/ DM

ACE/ARB

27

HTN tx for a pt w/ CHF/Ischemia/CAD?

Beta blocker or ACE/ARB

28

HTN tx for a pt w/ Angina

Beta blocker or calcium channel blocker

29

HTN tx for a pt w/ BPH

Alpha blocker

30

HTN tx for a pt w/ Hyperthyroid

Beta blocker