Flashcards in Bronchi, Lungs, Pleura and Diaphragm Deck (24)
What vertebral level does the trachea start and end at?
C6 to T4/T5
What is the name of the hooked cartilage at the bottom of the trachea?
What are the three divisions of the bronchi?
Primary - Lobar – Segmental
What are the cartilaginous structures found at the top of the airway?
What is the clinical significance of the gap between these two structures?
In an emergency situation, a cricothyroidotomy can be performed by piercing a hole in the median cricothyroid ligament.
How are the two primary bronchi different?
The right bronchus has a larger diameter and is more vertical
How many bronchopulmonary segments are there per lung?
What do the vessels, nerves and bronchi from the mediastinum have to pass through to get to the lungs?
Root of the lung
Where is the apex of the lung?
3-4 cm above the level of the first costal cartilage
What are the three edges of the lung?
Anterior, Posterior, Inferior
What are the three surfaces of the lung?
Costal, Mediastinal, Diaphragmatic
What does the diaphragm separate?
Right lung from the right lobe of the liver
Left lung from the left lobe of the liver, the stomach and the spleen
What is found above and behind the cardiac impression on the mediastinal surface of the lung?
The hilum of the lung where the vessels, bronchi and nerves enter the lung from the mediastinum
Describe the arrangement of the vessels and bronchi in the hilum of the lung.
The pulmonary artery is superior to the pulmonary veins. Bronchus is generally superior. The left bronchus divides into lobar bronchi within the lung. The right bronchus may divide into lobar bronchi in the hilum (before entering the lung).
Name the lobes in the right and left lung.
Right = superior, middle and inferior
Left = superior, inferior
Name the fissures separating the lobes.
Superior from Middle = horizontal
Middle from Inferior = oblique
Superior from Inferior = oblique
What structures enter of leave the hilum of the lung?
Pulmonary artery, pulmonary veins, bronchus, pulmonary nerve plexus, lymph vessels and nodes
What is the pulmonary ligament?
Inferior fold of pleura (below the hilum)
Where do the visceral and parietal pleura become continuous?
At the hilum of the lungs
What is the gap between the inferior surface of the lung and the inferior surface of the pleura called?
What are the attachments of the diaphragm?
Ends of ribs 11 and 12
How do the dimensions of the thoracic cavity change when inspiring?
Anteroposterior diameter increases
Transverse diameter increases
What causes expiration?
Expiration is PASSIVE - it is caused by the natural recoil of the lungs