Flashcards in Biology - Topic 3 - Genetics Deck (67)
Which structures are found inside the nucleus?
Which substance forms a long strand in each chromosome?
How do body cells make copies of themselves?
cell division, mitosis
How many chromosomes are there in a human body cell nucleus?
What happens in fertilisation?
two gametes fuse
What is the name of the cell formed in fertilisation?
zygote, fertilised egg cell
Which term means producing more of the same kind of organism?
What is the name of the human male gamete?
The DNA strand in a chromosome contains sections that carry instructions for characteristics. What are these sections called?
What would happen to the number of chromosomes in a zygote if two body cells were used in fertilisation?
it would have twice the number it should
How many chromosomes does a human gamete
Where are genes found?
(in sections of DNA) on chromosomes
What does a gene carry the instructions for?
making a protein
A protein is made by linking together smaller molecules. What are these smaller molecules called?
What is any molecule made of repeating units called?
A human cell contains 46 strands of DNA. Is it diploid or haploid?
Are the cells produced by meiosis haploid or diploid?
Are the cells produced by mitosis haploid or diploid?
What shape is DNA?
What is a chromosome made out of?
DNA and proteins (to package the DNA)
What are the letters of the bases that form the DNA code?
A, C, T and G
How do the bases pair up in DNA?
A with T, C with G
Apart from bases, what other parts are needed in a DNA molecule?
phosphate group, sugar
What is one phosphate group, one sugar and one base called?
How is the active site of an enzyme formed?
by folding of protein/polypeptide/amino acid chains
What molecule is produced in transcription?
mRNA or messenger RNA
What base does mRNA contain that DNA does not?
What is the name of the enzyme that allows
transcription to occur?
The mRNA nucleotides fit together with the nucleotides on the DNA template strand. What word describes bases that fit together?