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Flashcards in Biology II Deck (58)
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1

What is the cell membrane responsible for?

1. Regulate movement into and out of cell
2. Separate cell from its environment

2

What is the Phosolipid Bilayer?

The cell membrane; often referred to as the Fluid Mosaic Model

3

What is the Phosolipid Bilayer made of?

Phosphate and Fatty Acids

4

What is the membrane's permeability?

Selectively permeable or semi-permeable

5

What is passive transport?

Movement of molecules with the concentration gradient; does not use energy; includes diffusion, osmosis and facilitated transport;

6

What is the concentration gradient?

Difference in concentration in two or more areas

7

What is diffusion?

Movement of molecules is in any direction, but the net movement will be from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration; molecules speed up when heated; will stop when equilibrium is reached

8

What is equilibrium?

When the concentration is equal; dynamic equilibrium;

9

What factors affect diffusion?

Temperature; size; steepness or difference in concentration gradient; distance; polarity

10

What is Active Transport?

Moving molecules against the concentration gradient; using energy.

11

What are the 3 proteins involved in plant transport?

1. Carrier proteins (Passive)
2. Channel proteins (Passive)
3. ATP (Active)

12

What is a carrier protein?

a protein present in cell membrane that binds to a specific molecule and transports it through the membrane

13

What is a channel protein?

a protein in the cell membrane that forms a passage way through which specific solutes can pass by diffusion; some channels open and close in response to binding of specific molecules

14

What is osmosis?

The diffusion of water

15

What is hypertonic?

higher concentration of solute

16

What is hypotonic?

higher concentration of solvent

17

What is isotonic?

Equal concentrations; dynamic equilibrium

18

Turgid

firm; plant cells become turgid when water enters due to a hypertonic surrounding environment

19

Plasmolysis

Shrinking of the cytoplasm and plasma membrane away from the cell wall due to outflow of water in a hypertonic environment; observed only in cells with rigid cell walls

20

Semi-Permiable

A type of membrane which allows certain particles to pass through while others are excluded; can be natural or synthetically produced for industrial use

21

Endocytosis

uptake of particles or molecules by formation of a vesicle from the cell membrane; requires energy from ATP

22

Exocytosis

Release if molecules from vesicle that fuses with the cell membrane to export the molecules from the cell; requires energy from ATP

23

Spongey Mesophyll

Structure and to allow CO2 to pass easily

24

Permeable

Anything can flow in or out freely

25

Turgor Pressure

Pressure exerted against a cell wall by the water that has entered the cell through osmosis

26

What are the benefits for a cell to have a large surface area?

More area to absorb nutrients, small volume means that things reach the nucleus faster

27

Phototropism

directional growth in response to light

28

Negative phototropism

growth away from a light source

29

Positive phototropism

growth towards a light source

30

Geotropism

directional plant growth in response to gravity, may be positive or negative; also called Gravitropism