Flashcards in 5.6 - Photosynthesis Deck (19)
Describe the interrelationship between photosynthesis and respiration.
All organisms respire all of the time. Respiration removes oxygen from the atmosphere and returns carbon dioxide. Photosynthetic organisms only photosynthesis when light intensity is high enough. Photosynthesis removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and adds oxygen.
What is the compensation point?
When then the rate of photosynthesis and respiration proceed at the same rate. There is no net gain or loss of carbohydrates.
How do compensation points differ between light and shade plants?
Shade plants reach their compensation point sooner than sun plants. Shade plants require a lower light intensity to reach their optimum rate of photosynthesis. Converse points apply for sun plants.
What is the overall equation for photosynthesis?
6H2O + 6CO2 + (light energy) → C6H12O6 + 6O2
What is the overall equation for respiration?
C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6H2O + 6CO2 + energy (ATP)
Why is it important for plants to respire as well as photosynthesise?
In the dark there is no ATP production in photosynthesis. Some tissues are unable to photosynthesise. ATP cannot be moved between cells or stored. ATP is needed for active transport. ATP is needed for growth, synthesis of proteins and DNA
Relate the ultrastructure of a chloroplast to its function.
Outer membrane: Permeable to ions and gases.
Inner membrane: Impermeable to ions.
Grana/Granum: Site of LDR, thylakoids (flattened sacs) stacked into grana, increase surface area for reactions, photosystems held in membrane.
Photosystems: PSI an PSII, funnel shaped, contain photosynthetic pigments, each absorb light of different wavelengths, primary reaction centre at base contains chlorophyll a.
Stroma / Matrix: Site of LIR, contains enzymes, RuBP, RUBISCO, lipid droplets, starch granules, plasmid DNA for synthesis of chloroplast proteins and enzymes, small prokaryote like ribosomes.
Describe chlorophyll a.
Blue-green. PSII absorbs light at peak 680nm. PSI absorbs light at peak 700nm. Some of blue light absorbance at 440nm.
Describe chlorophyll b.
Yellow-green. Absorbs light 400-500 nm and 640nm.
What are accessory pigments?
Carotenoids, appear orange, absorb blue light 400-500nm.
Xanthophylls, appear yellow, absorb blue and green light, 375-550nm.
Describe the stages of the light-dependent reaction.
Chlorophyll absorbs photons (light energy).
This excites electrons and they leave/ emitted from the chlorophyll.
Electrons move along an electron transport chain in a series of oxidation-reduction reactions releasing energy.
Energy used to pump protons across thylakoid membrane from stroma into thylakoid space.
Proton gradient forms across membrane, protons diffuse down concentration gradient through ATPsynthase, chemiosmosis.
Energy released is used to combine ADP and Pi to form ATP - hydrolysis reaction, photophosphorylation.
Electrons from PSII replace those lost from PSI.
Photolysis of water produces protons, electrons and oxygen.
Electrons replace those lost from PSII.
NADP is reduced by electrons and protons, forms NADPH, catalysed by NADPH reductase.
What is cyclic phosphorylation?
Uses only PSI I. Electrons excited by photons passed back down ETC. Small amount of ATP synthesised. No photolysis so no protons, no oxygen, no NADPH. Used in guard cells to regulate opening/closing of stomata.
Describe the stages of the light-independent reaction/the Calvin cycle.
Occurs in the stroma, uses products of LDR.
Carbon dioxide combines with 5C ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) (carboxylation). 6C intermediate is unstable.
Produces 2 molecules of 3C glycerate-3-phosphate (GP), carbon fixation.
This is reduced to 3C triose phosphate (TP) using reduced NADP (reduction) and energy from ATP (phosphorylation).
Triose phosphate converted to other organic substances. The majority is used to regenerate RuBP.
What is a limiting factor?
The factor that limits the rate at which the process takes place.
What are the limiting factors of photosynthesis?
Light intensity; carbon dioxide concentration; temperature; water stress.
Describe the effect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis.
As the light intensity increases so does the rate of photosynthesis.
Describe the effect of carbon dioxide concentration on the rate of photosynthesis.
As the carbon dioxide concentration increases so does rate of photosynthesis.
Describe the effect of temperature on the rate of photosynthesis.
As temperature increases so does rate of photosynthesis. Between 0 and 25°C the rate of photosynthesis is doubled for each 10°C rise in temperature.
Above 30°C oxygen competes with carbon dioxide for the active site of RuBISCO (photorespiration). This means there is less carbon dioxide to carboxylate RuBP, less GP, less TP, and therefore less regeneration of RuBP. Rate slows.
Above 45°C enzymes denature, and the rate stops.