Flashcards in 4 Main Scholars Deck (10)
Explain Aquinas' 5th way
Aquinas 5th way (of proving God exists) is the "Argument from Design".
1) We see that natural bodies work toward some goal, and do not do so by chance.
2) Most natural things lack knowledge.
3) But as an arrow reaches its target because it is directed by an archer, what lacks intelligence achieves goals by being directed by something intelligence.
4) Therefore some intelligent being exists by whom all natural things are directed to their end; and this being we call God.
Explain Aquinas' 'Arrow Analogy'
Aquinas said that the world is like an arrow - Designed with a specific purpose. Just like an arrow is specifically made to hit the target. An arrow is directed by an intelligent being and Aquinas compared this to us - directed and given a purpose by God. The fact we have a purpose (telos) is evidence that a being designed us to achieve this - therefore God is the designer and God exists.
Explain Paley's 'Watch Analogy.'
If we found a watch in a field having no previous knowledge of the nature of watches. Due to its complexity we would immediately assume it has been designed. Paley said the same could be said about the world and the universe. It so complicated it must have been designed. He concluded that the only being capable of designing the Universe and everything within it is God.
Explain what the term "Qua Purpose" means with examples.
"Design Qua Purpose" literally means - "Design with Purpose". This term refers to the fact that the world fits together for some purpose and this is evidence of a designer. For example - its similar to the human body, each organ has a purpose and other parts of the anatomy depend on it.
Explain what the term "Qua Regularity" means with examples
"Design Qua Regularity" literally means - "Design with regularity". This refers to the fact that there's order and regularity within the universe. A great example would be the solar system. Each planet is held in orbit by gravity - regularity and order.
Explain John Wisdoms Gardener analogy in support of Paley.
John Wisdom proposed an analogy where there is a garden, in perfect condition. No weeds grow there and plants fruit and flower. No gardener is ever seen there but it remains in great condition. Wisdom explained this is similar to the Earth.
1) The Gardener is God and 2) The garden is Earth
Explain Tennant's Anthropic Principle.
In this principle, Tennant argues that the conditions for life and the order in the universe are too perfect to have happened by chance. There must have been a supernatural being who designed the world. Tennant argues this designer is God.
Explain Tennant's Aesthetic Principle.
The Aesthetic principle plays on the fact that we appreciate beauty. Tennant argues that because we appreciate things as beautiful and its not a necessary survival skill (links to Darwin's theory of Natural Selection) we must have been designed in order to have this trait. The world was therefore designed and the designer is God.
Explain Swinburne's argument of probability.
Swinburne argues that the chances of the world/ universe coming into existence are so slim that they couldn't have happened by chance. Therefore, there must have been a designer that created the world. The designer is God.